St. Petersburg Association of Scientists and Scholars


NATO-Advanced Research Workshop




April 17-19, 2004


St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

199034 St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 5,



General Report


The Workshop is sponsored by:


NATO Science Programme

Cooperative Science&Technology Sub-


The Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR)




Dr. SELTZ Raymond                                                                             

Euroscience / 8, rue des Ecrivains/ F- STRASBOURG, FRANCE, 

Telephone/Fax/ Tel.: +33 3 88 24 11 50     FAX. / +33 3 88 24 75 56




Professor Irina Eliseeva, ass. Member of RAS, Head of the Chair of Statistics at St.- Petersburg University of Statistics and Finance,

TEL.: +7812 1105594   FAX. / +37 812 310 44 79










The objective of the workshop was double: first to review and deepen the knowledge of new aspects of conflicts, at various scales, in the beginning of the XXI century, second to analyse how scientists could contribute specifically to prevent, manage, mitigate and possibly resolve conflicts.

Not ignoring that some scientists do work to produce weapons, crucial problems of implementing scientific initiatives to help to the pursuit of peace among nations or regions. So as the International co-operation in research helps bridge gaps and break barriers raised by different languages, cultures, social situations, the problems of how does this habit of co-operation could be translated  into political impact. The factors which make it possible, the specific mechanisms that hard science scholars could put at work were be discussed.





Key Speakers


Surname Initials Title                                       Institute                











Seltz, Raymond

Euroscience  8,rue des Ecrivains,  F - 67000 Strasbourg,

Tel.: 33 3 88 24 11 50, Fax: 33 3 88 24 75 56



Toulouse, Gérard

Laboratoire de physique de l'École normale supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond,

75231 Paris, France, e-mail:

Tel: 33-1 -44 32 34 87, Fax: 33-1 43 36 76 66





Swyatek, Piotr

EU-Bureau of Federal Ministry of Education and Research,

PT-DLR, P.O. Box  30 03 64, D-53183 Bonn,

GSM    +49 - 170 - 2 11 96 12



Sam Vaseghi

Diplom-Mult., Deloitte@Touche, Hanse-Forum Axel-Springer-Platz 3 20355, Hamburg

Tel (0 40) 3 20 80-4588, Fax: (0 40) 3 20 80-4702,






Tamas, Pal.

Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Uri. U. 49, 1014 Budapest

Tel:( 361) 2246743, Fax: (361)2246741






Davis, Polly C.

Conflict Resolution, Research and Resource Institute, Inc.

615 Commerce St., Suite 100 Tacoma, WA 98402

1-253-597-8100 –voice 1- 253-597-8103 –Fax


Lincoln, William F.

President, The Lincoln Institute for collaborative Planning and Cooperative Problem Solving, Inc. (TLI), Conflict Resolution Research &Resource Institute,

Tel: 1-253-597-8100, Fax: 1-253-597-8103


McDonald John

Chairman, Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, VA,

1925 N.Lynn Street Suite 1200

Rosslyn, VA 22209 ph. 1- (703) 528 -38 63



Oglesbey Rick

Conflict Resolution Research &Resource Institute, Inc., mediator, 615 Commerce Street Suite 100, 98402, Tacoma, VA, USA,

1-253-597-8100 –voice 1- 253-597-8103 –Fax


Oglesbey Kathi

Conflict Resolution Research &Resource Institute, Inc., mediator, 615 Commerce Street Suite 100, 98402, Tacoma, VA, USA,

1-253-597-8100 –voice 1- 253-597-8103 –Fax


Siver Stanley

Executive Director, Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, VA,

1925 N.Lynn Street Suite 1200 Rosslyn, VA 22209 ph. 1- (703) 528 -38 63,

fax : 1-703-528-5776, e-mail :


Rambaut Paul

University of Hawaii, affiliate  professor, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 4878, Hilo, Hawaii 96720, USA, Tel. 1-808-966 7128,

Fax: 1-808-966-8465,








Zlatarska Ivanka

Director of “ZDRAVETC” company, 9000 Varna, 33 “General Zimermann” str.

Phone: 359 52-612-310 , 359 52-608 823, Association of Bulgarian Ecologist “ABECOL” ,


Zlatarski Nikolai

ZDRAVETC” company, 9000 Varna, 33 “General Zimermann” str.

Phone: 359 52-612-310 , 359 52-608 823 Association of Bulgarian Ecologist “ABECOL” ,





Pustylnik, Izold

Dr. Sci., Senior Research Associate Tartu observatory, 61602, Toravere, Estonia

 fax:(372)7-410205  tel.:(3727)-410465






Piliya D. Ch.

Abkhazian State University, Sukhumy








Vilnus University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, 21/27 Ciurlionio, Vilnius, 2009

Tel: 370-5 2398287 Fax: 370-5-1197607





Alexandrov, Feodor 

St. Petersburg State University, The Department of Philosophy, Mendeleev line 5, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia, 7-313-9647, Fax:  7-307-0918  

Russian Federation

Amusia M. Ya.

Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg194021, Russia and Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel

Russian Federation

Chernova E.B.

St. Petersburg Urbanist Institute, Russia


Russian Federation

Denisova G.S.


Chair of Department of Rostov State Pedagogical University, Russia,


Russian Federation

Didenko, Nelli

St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, senior researcher, 5 Universitetskaya nab., 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia

Tel: +7 (812)-328-40-87, Fax: +7(812)-328-37-87, E-mail:

Russian Federation

Eliseeva, Irina

Ass. member of RAS, St.-Petersburg University of Statistics and Finance,

Tel/Fax: +7 (812) 3104479

21 Sadovaya ulitsa,  191023, St. Petersburg, Russia

Russian Federation

Ivanov S.M.


St. Petersburg State University, Oriental Department, 7 University emb., 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia,

Tel/Fax: 7-812-323-30-54

Russian Federation

Karpenko A. D.

Chair in Russia of the Russian-American program on conflictology; St. Petersburg State University, The Department of Philosophy, Mendeleev line 5, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia, 7-313-9647, Fax:  7-307-0918

Russian Federation

Podoprigora Boris A.


Club of Conflictologists (mediators), St. Petersburg, Russia, President, Vice- commander of the Department of International relations of the Leningrad  military region, colonel

21, Basseynaya str., St. Petersburg, 196191, Russia, tel. 7 (812) 375-7920, 113-0187

Russian Federation

Postolenko, Irina

St. Petersburg Urbanist Institute, Russia


Russian Federation

Raskin David

St. Petersburg Association of Scientist and Schorlars,

5 University emb., off. 300, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia

tel.: 7-812—318-49-60, Fax: 7-812-328-41-24,


Russian Federation

Rezvan Efim A.  


Deputy Director of Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, 3 University emb., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia, Tel: 7-812-328-08-12, Fax: 7-812-328-08-11

Russian Federation

Savva M.V.


Prof. Kuban State University, Krasnodar


Russian Federation

Shandibina Galina D.

University of Precise Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg,

Tel.: 7-812-233-34-06

Russian Federation

Stepanov Eugenyu I.

Prof. The Director of the Conflictology Centre, Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ulit. Krzhizhanovskogo, 24/35 corp. 5, office 413, 117218  Moscow, Russia

Tel.: 8 (095)125-6150 Fax: 8 (095) 719-09-90

Russian Federation


Andrey L.

Prof., St. Petersburg Association of Scientist and Scholars, Executive Director,

5 University emb. off. 300, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia,

Tel/Fax: 7-812-328-41 24,

Head of the Laboratory Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS

Russian Federation

Tropp, Eduard

St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, General Academic Secretary,

5 Universitetskaya nab., 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia

Phone: +7 (812)-328-33-16, Fax: +7(812)-328-37-87


Russian Federation

Viktorov A.D.

Prof. Head of Department of Science and High Education of Administration of St. Petersburg,

Tel.: +7(812) 276-11-60,

Fax: +7(812) 276-17-04



Russian Federation






Institute of Veterinary Medicine Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science,

Donetskaya St. 30, 252151 Kiev-151, Ukraine,  Phone: 380 (44) 243-73-02

380 (44)243-72-38


Makarenko Alexander

National Technical  University of Ukraine (KPI), Institute of Applied System Analysis Prof.: Department of Mathematical Methods of System Analysis



Tancher V.V.

Research Institute of Sociology of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences,




Yegorov, Igor Y.

Head of Department, Dobrov Center for the Social Studies of Science National Academy of Sciences, Kiev Taras Sevchenko bul.

 Tel./Fax: 380-44-216-95-91









Amusia M. Ya.

Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg194021, Russia and Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel






Andrew Sors

The head of the Unit "Citizen and Governance in a knowledge based society".in the European Commission which deals with social sciences research in Europe




Ziman John


Bristol University, UK









Number of Key Speakers (K) and estimated number of Other Participants (P) by country







































Czech Republic


































































Kyrghyz Republic












 (Key speakers only)































Russian Federation








Slovak Republic
























the former Yugoslav

  Republic of Macedonia(1)












































































































































(1)Turkey recognises the Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name



From NATO countries**



From Eligible Partner ** or Mediterranean  Dialogue countries


From Non-Eligible Partner or

Other countries



Total Number Participants





* Eligible/Non-eligible Partner countries means those countries which are members of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EPAC), and are/are not eligible for support under the NATO Science Program

** NATO countries Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland may be considered in this context as either NATO or Partner countries under special provisions which will continue to apply to applications being prepared for all the deadlines in 2002.








Partner-country  Prof. Mikhail LIBENSON Russia

Dr. Raymond SELTZ France

Prof. Irina ELISEEVA, Ass. Member of  RAS Russia


Organizing Committee members, starting with Directors


Prof. Mikhail Libenson (Russia)Co-director;

SI Vavilov State Optical Institute (SOI),  14 Birzhevaya liniya - 199034 St Petersburg - Russia

Prof. Jean-Patric Connerade (UK)

Professor Physics Department - Blackett Laboratory Imperial College London University - London SW7 2BZ - UK

Dr. Raimond Seltz (France)

General Secretary Euroscience Co-Director 8, rue des Ecrivains - 67000 Strasbourg - France 

Prof. Pal Tamas (Hungary)

Director Department of Sociology Hungarian Academy of Sciences - 1051 Budapest - Hungary


Programme Committee:


Prof. Eugenyu Stepanov, co-chair (Russia)

Prof. Jean-Patrick Connerade, co-chair (UK) 

Prof. Mikhail Libenson, co-chair (Russia)

Prof. Pal Tamas(Hungary)

Dr. Francoise Praderie (France)

Prof. Eduard Tropp(Russia)

Prof. Irina Eliseeva, Ass. Member of RAS, (Russia)

Dr. Feodor Aleksandrov(Russia)

Dr. Nelli Didenko,Scientific Secretary (Russia),

Dr. Irina Postolenko(Russia)


Organizing Committee:

Dr. Nelly Didenko, chair (Russia)

St. Petersburg Scentific Centre of RAS, 5 University emb.,199034,  St. Petersburg, Russia,.


Dr.Feodor Alexandrov (Russia)

Dr. Raymond Seltz(France)

Dr. Sam Vaseghi(Germany)

Dr. Ludmila Japaridze (Russia)

Dr. Renata Vitman (Russia)

Mr. Vadim Soldatov (Russia)

Mrs.Elena Ivanova (Russia)

Prof. Andrey Timkovsky (Russia)

Mr. Igor Didenko(Russia)

Dr. Galina Shandybina(Russia)

Mrs. Anna Shihina(Russia)











Workshop Program


Saturday, 1-st day, April 17

9.00 – 10.00 Opening ceremony

  9:00, a.m. Opening:


  Welcome addresses by:

·                     Prof. Irina Eliseeva, Ass. Member of RAS, Co-Director of the Workshop,

·                     Prof. Eduard A.Tropp, Permanent Secretary of Science of St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPb SC RAS);

·                     Prof. Eugeniy I. Stepanov, Director of the Centre of Conflicting of the Institute of Sociology of RAS;

·                     Dr. Raymond Seltz, General Secretary, Euroscience

·                     Prof. Andrey Timkovsky, Executive Director of St. Petersburg Association of Scientist and Scholars



10:00-10:20 Coffee break







10.20–12.30 Plenary session 

Chairmen:  Prof. Eduard A. Tropp (Russia), Prof. Pal Tamas (Hungary)



John McDonald (USA) “Conflicts of civilizations as new type of conflicts of the XXI century. USA, Japan and Europe (Western and Eastern)”


Eugeny I. Stepanov (Russia) “Globalization and regionalization as conflict factors in transformation process in Russia”


Mikhail Libenson, F. O. Aleksandrov,  “ The Role of scientists in studying conflict. Natural science methods as an instrument for the description of dynamics of conflicts”


Pal Tamas “Scientists engaged in mitigation of international conflicts: actual experience of XX century”


A.D. Viktorov (Russia) "Conflicts between scientists and society" 


12.30–14.00 Lunch

Chapter 1. The  new scene of interstate relations, globalization and role of regions

Session 1. Conflicts of civilizations as new types of conflicts of the XXI century

Chairmen: Prof. Eugenyi. Stepanov (Russia),



John McDonald (USA) “The social tensions in a context of globalization and regionalization” 




M.V. Savva (Russia) "Ethnic migrations in the south regions of Russia"

Film about Krasnodar region ethnic conflict. 15”


W. F. Lincoln (USA) “Tensions in city”


E.B. Chernova (Russia) “Territorial conflicts and ways of mitigating them when implementing projects of regional development”



Kath. Oglesbey (USA) “Conflicts when implementing urban and regional development projects”



G.S. Denisova (Russia) "Ethnic conflicts: investigation and mitigation"




(G.S. Denisova and Pal Tamas)




16:00–16:15 Coffee break

Chapter 1. The  new scene of interstate relations, globalization and role of regions

Session 2. Social tensions in a context of globalization and of enhanced role of regions.


Chairmen: Dr. A.D. Karpenko (Russia), Dr. John McDonald (USA)



V.V. Tancher (Ukraine) "The problem of deinstitutionalization of social conflicts in context of globalization "


D.Ch. Piliya (Georgia) “Georgian-Abkhazian conflict: myths and reality”


G. Paltanavicute (Lithuania) “The Territorial Distribution of Lithuania's National  Communities in Years 1989-2001 - the possibility of social tensions”


A.D. Karpenko (Russia) “Some properties of group and social conflicts in modern Russia (practical aspect)” 





Sunday, 2-nd day, April 18, 2004

9.00 – 10.45

Chapter II. Actions in the scientific community to study and to help resolve conflicts

Session 3. New methods for interdisciplinary studying, understanding and solving conflicts

Chairmen: Prof. Alexander S. Makarenko (Ukraine), Prof. Izold  Pustolnik (Estonia)



M.N. Libenson, F.O. Alexandrov,  I.G. Postolenko, G.D. Shandybina (Russia) “Nonequilibrium models of conflicts” 


A. Makarenko (Ukraine) “Problems, Models, Tools and Perspectives of conflictology” 


I. Pustolnik (Estonia) "About Communications Skills and Tools of Interdisciplinary Contacts on International Scale" 

10:15 -10:45




10:45–11:00 Coffee break


Chapter II. Actions in the scientific community to study and to help resolve conflicts

Session 4. Tackling cultural misunderstandings by creating linkage and co-operation

Chairmen: Ass. Member of RAS, Prof. Irina Eliseeva (Russia), Dr. Kathleen Oglesbey (USA)



B. Podoprigora (Russia) “The problem of double standards in evaluation and managing of international leveled conflicts”


E. Rezvan (Russia) “Information war and struggle for Hearts in Moslem East” 


P. C. Davis (USA) “Conflicts between authorities, business and the public” 


S.M. Ivanov  (Russia) “The concept of  “linear” time: possible changes at the beginning  of the XXI century on examples of Middle East countries.


I. Y. Egorov (Ukraine) „Social sciences in Ukrainian society: from the Communist ideology to new political conformism.” 




P. Swiatek  (Germany) “Impact of international scientific co-operation on conflict avoidance” 



I. Postolenko, F. Alexandrov (Russia) “Humanitarian ideology and present-day peace-making"




13:15 – 14:45 Lunch time


Monday, 3-rd day, April 19, 2004

9:00 – 10:30  

Chapter II. Actions in the scientific community to study and to help resolve conflicts

Session 5: Role of scientists, scientific and international NGOs in preventing and mitigating tensions 

 Chairmen:  Prof. M.Ya. Amusia (Russia), Prof. P. Tamas (Hungary)



G. Toulouse (France) "Science, truth and trust"


M.Ya. Amusia (Russia, Israel) "Responsibility of the intellectuals for the future of mankind".


D.I. Raskin, L.Ya. Borkin, N.M. Girenko, N.I. Didenko (Russia) “Social activity of NGO in Russia as a form of assistance in mitigating conflicts (on example of SPASS)”


R. Seltz "What can do Euroscience and its local sections in mitigating the tensions in society"



N.Didenko “Euroscience in Russia:




10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break

11:00 – 12:30 


Chapter II. Actions in the scientific community to study and to help resolve conflicts

Session 6: Investigating and resolving conflicts inside and around science

Chairmen:  Prof. G. Toulouse, Dr. N. Didenko (Russia)





Z. Klestova (Ukraine) "Conflicts between society and science in present-day biotechnology and genetics"


I. Zlatarska, S. Nedelkov (Bulgaria) "Conflicts among new drugs and men’s health"


S. Vaseghi (Germany) "Economy and Technology Key issues 2000-2010"





13.00 – 14.30 Lunch time


 Round Table  "Threats and Challenges of the XXIst century in context of Globalization

P. Tamas, E. Stepanov








Closing Remarks





Closing of the Workshop





Party with the Head of Department of Conflictology of the Department  of Philosophy of S. Petersburg State University























General Report



The Workshop was welcomed by:


The Workshop started with the commemoration of Prof. Mikhail Libenson, one of co-founder of ES, famous Russian Physicist, initiator and Co-Director of The Workshop, who suddenly died on 23rd of February, 2004. His death prevented him from finishing this project, but the job was completed by his friends and colleagues.


All speakers in their welcome words emphasized the importance and timeliness of the meeting, which brought together researchers from natural, social sciences, administrators of science and representatives of many European, NATO countries and countries of NIS. Colonel B. Podoprigora, Vice- commander of the Department of International relations of the Leningrad  military region, President of Club of Conflictologists (mediators) also took part as a speaker.


The Workshop consisted of the Plenary session and two chapters consisting of six sessions (four sessions in the first chapter and two sessions in the second chapter), seven sessions of Discussions, and the Round Table.

Chapter I was devoted to the  new scene of interstate relations, globalization and role of regions. It consisted of the two sessions. On these sessions the following issues were considered:

·         Conflicts of civilizations as new types of conflicts of the XXI century

Chapter II was devoted to the problems of actions in the scientific community to study and to help resolve conflicts. It consisted of the four sessions. On these sessions the following issues were considered:

·         Role of scientists, scientific and international NGOs in preventing and mitigating tensions 

Plenary key-note lecture was delivered to Ambassador J. McDonald (USA) who introduced the Workshop participants why  the world has become more violent in the last few years. Another plenary key-note speaker Prof. E. Stepanov (Russia) introduced to the participants the main problems of  globalization and regionalization as conflict factors in transformation process in Russia. Plenary speaker from Hungary Prof. Pal Tamas examined questions of how Scientists engaged in mitigation of international conflicts and their actual experience of XX century. Prof. Viktorov, the Prof. Head of Department of Science and High Education of Administration of St. Petersburg in his plenary speech introduced participants with the problems of conflicts between scientists and society.

Dr. F. Alexandrov devoted his presentation to the history of joint work of well-known physicist Prof. Mikhail Libenson with conflictology, to the role of scientists in studying conflict. He told also about natural science methods as an instrument for the description of dynamics of conflicts.


The biographies of speakers are presented in Appendix 1.


The abstracts of the key-speaker talks are presented in Appendix 2; these abstracts have been published in Preprints of the Workshop. Full papers presented at the Workshop will be published as NATO ARW Proceedings.   


CV of Co-Direcor Prof. Irina Eliseeva is presented in Annex I.


The Workshop was covered by the city press. There are articles about the Workshop in the local newspaper “St.Petersburg Bulletin”, May 6 2004, p.5, in All Russian newspaper “Poise” (Search) (May 14, 2004, p.14, and in magazine “Petersburg” (Chronicle of culture and art), 5/2004.


It was agreed that the participants of the Workshop will continue their contacts established during the Workshop and that in the future it would be useful to hold such a meeting devoted to the role of scientists of different specialties in anti-terrorist activity with participation of policy makers, journalists and public.


Annex 1


                            CURRICULUM VITAE FOR EACH CO-DIRECTOR

                        (one from a NATO country and one from a Partner country)



SURNAME              ELISEEVA                                                                            FIRST NAME(S)     Irina

(Please ensure that in writing names the same spelling is used throughout the application)

Affiliation and official address:  St. Petersburg University of Statistics and Finance,

21, Sadovaya str.

                                                                191023 St.Petersburg



Date and place of birth:       17.11.1943,  Russia                                                             Nationality: Russian


Education (degrees, dates, universities)

Graduation, 1965, Leningrad Financial and Economic Institute named after N. Voznesenskiy (now St.Petersburg University of Statistics and Finance)

PhD, 1974, Leningrad Financial and Economic Institute named after N. Voznesenskiy

D.Sci., 1984, Leningrad Financial and Economic Institute named after N. Voznesenskiy


Career/Employment (employers, positions and dates)


Leningrad Financial and Economic Institute named after N.Voznesenskiy, assistant, 1965-1968

Ibid, PhD student, 1968-1971

Ibid, assistant, 1971-1974

Ibid, senior lecturer, 1974-1976

Ibid, assistant professor, 1976-1985

Ibid, professor, 1986-1989

Ibid, Chair of the Department of Statistics, 1990-now


Specialization (specify)


(i)            main field

Statistical methods - general theory, history, social statistics, econometrics

other fields

international science policy


(iii)         current research interest

social statistics, econometrics


Honours, Awards, Fellowships, Membership of Professional Societies


·          Leader of Socio-economic research section at St-Petersburg House for Scientists (1986)

·          Scientific secretary of St-Petersburg House for Scientists (1994)

·          Associate member of Russian Academy of Sciences (1994)

·          Academician of International Academy of Higher Education (1994)

·          Member of Editorial Committee of All-Russian Journal ''The problems of Statistics'' (1994)

·          Member of Editorial Committee of ''Proceedings of St.-Petersburg University of Economics and Finance'' (1994)

·          Member of International Statistics Institute (1995)

·          Member of European Society of History of Economic Thought (1997)

·          Head of Scientific Council for Social - economic problems, St.-Petersburg Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Science.




-Number of papers in refereed journals: 18

-Number of communications to scientific meetings: 58

- Books: 

Structure and functions of family group, Moscow, Finance and Statistics, 1983 (Go - author).

The dynamic of USSR population 1960-1980, Moscow, Finance and Statistics, 1985(co-author).

The poverty in Russia: alternative approach to determination and measurement, Moscow, Centre Carnegi at Moscow 1998 (co - auth).

The History of Statistics, Moscow, Finance and Statistics, 1990 (co - auth).

The General Theory of Statistics. 4-th ed. - Moscow, Finance and Statistics, 1999 (co - auth).


Appendix 1
Devoted to the memory of Professor M.Libenson



Professor Mikhail N. LIBENSON


Mikhail N. LIBENSON suddenly died on February 23, 2004 at the age of 64. He was a prominent physicist, the USSR state prize winner (1986), Doctor of physical and mathematical science (1988; Ph.D. in physics 1970), Professor (1991), Honored scientist of the Russian Federation (1993), Soros’ Professor (1994), Head of laboratory of “Surface Photo-physics” of S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute, where he has worked for more than 30 years.

Forty years of Professor Libnenson’s fruitful work made an outstanding contribution in high-power optics and photo-

physics. His works in physics of laser matter interaction are well known in Russia and abroad.

Main scientific achievements of Professor Libenson include his pioneering works in development of basics of laser lithography and laser action on thin films. This research was awarded with the USSR State Prize. His fundamental research in mechanisms of laser-matter interaction became classic in the field. He was first to develop a conception of interaction of laser radiation with surface in near-field optical devices and essentially clarified the potential of nano-optics.

Professor Libenson made very valuable contribution in the theory of interaction of laser radiation with matter and optical damage; laser thermo-chemistry; the theory of surface electromagnetic waves; near-field optics; physical principles of laser technology. He published more than 200 scientific articles, three monographs in high power optics and laser technology and 25 patents. These publications received wide recognition in the world.

Outstanding creativity, high efficiency, initiative, absolute decency and many other strains of a true scientist belonged to Mikhail Libenson. His name is associated with a number of bright ideas, which were formulated first by him and later were independently proved by others and played highly important role in development of concepts of laser action. Last years he actively worked in high power and non-linear optics, theory of ultrashort laser action, nanooptics, theory of instability and selforganization (not only in physics). Mikhail Libenson as an RFBR expert in phyisics. As an outstanding scientist Mikhail Libenson deserved blessed and good memory.


Alexandrov F. O., Libenson M. N., Postolenko I. G., Shandibina G. D.

St. Petersburg Association of  Scientists and Scholars

Model of conflict dynamics using instability notion was built. Application of instability notion is based on war criticism policy. It is shown that power balance scheme is widely used in modern model notions of conflict. Conflict is connected with disturbance of existing power balance and transition to a new state of balance, to a new power balance. Balance schemes suitable for conflict modeling were created. It is shown that in case of absence of institutional measuring procedures (such as election procedures, voting procedures in parliament) conflict participants are guided by different evaluation criteria of power balance. Scheme of positive and negative feedbacks becomes one of the simplest schemes to model mutual influences when existing situation is evaluated by conflict participants. The result is a conflict model possessing instability and allowing formalizing in form of equations.


Responsibility of the intellectuals for the future of the mankind

Amusia M. Ya.

Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg194021, Russia and Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel

Modern world becomes increasingly dependent upon intellectuals in general and scientists and engineers in particular.

These people contribute decisively to the ability of the mankind to survive and be prosperous and, on the other hand, to develop in opposite direction, toward destruction and self-elimination.

We will discuss, inevitably briefly, two examples of modern crisises: that in Yugoslavia (Kosovo) and in Israel. We will concentrate on the moral responsibility of intellectuals in preventing crisises, on their role in fighting terrorism, including military, communicational, informational and pure political aspects of this problem.

We will discuss the ability and readiness of the intellectuals to challenge these issues.  



Chernova E.B.

St. Petersburg Urbanist Institute


Territorial conflicts during implementation of projects of regional development are shown using examples of projects completed at the Russian Institute of Urbanistics for the last 12 years. Technology of conflict management in civil project development is developed. This technology consists of dialog procedures among authorities, business and general public. Methods and techniques of conflict management are shown by examples of work in Lensk. This experience has shown the necessity for conflictological assistance of works during elimination of consequences of natural and man-made disasters.



Davis Polly

the Associate Director of the "Conflict Resolution, Research and Resource Institute" headquartered in Tacoma Washington [USA]. Ms. Davis is an experienced practitioner in negotiating and mediating disputes as well as developing conflict prevention, management, and resolution systems in various nations of Eastern Europe, Central America and Africa.

Ms. Davis addressed a recent dispute involving a developer's intention to create a major destination resort on 7,400 acres of land that it quietly purchased in a fairly pristine rural area comprised of mountain ridges and valleys, several rivers and salmon runs, wildlife habitat including elk herds' traditional birthing sites and corridors, and the picturesque yet economically depressed village of Roselyn Washington [USA].

This particular dispute represents an ever increasing common "tensions in society" scenario, namely, corporate as well as citizen desires for progress through local economic development on the one hand, but on the opposite hand other citizenry demands for the preservation of environmental integrity, aesthetics and related life styles. In this case the tension was wrapped in the competing interests of (i) Trendwest, a private sector land developer and resort operator; (ii) RIDGE, a grass root environmentally focused group comprised of local citizenry who were mostly regarded as the young "new comers" to the community, but who held high paying professional jobs an hour's drive away in Seattle; and (iii) village residents who were fractionated over the possibilities of an economic revival, but with the fear that the character of their rural town and their general "layback" life styles would be severely altered forever.  

The case history showed how nine months of intense mediated negotiations transformed the conflict into a mutual challenge which was resolved in a manner that Trendwest's corporate public image and financial interests were met satisfactorily as were the environmental, aesthetic, safety and economic interests of RIDGE and most of the village's citizenry.

Ms. Davis emphasized that (i) disputants exercising assertiveness in order to satisfy their own primary interests while simultaneously employing cooperation to satisfy the interests of opposing disputants need not be contradictory, and (ii) the success of the mediation was rooted in the parties' high levels of procedural, substantive and psychological satisfaction -- the three basic ingredients for equitable, practical and durable agreements.



Denisova G.S.

Rostov State Pedagogical University, Russia


The problems of Ethnic nationalism are considered on the basis of example of the South of Russia. Ethnic nationalism being widely spread over the southern region of Russia is conditioned by three groups of factors: geopolitical (international), intra-Russian and regional (properly ethno-cultural). Their intersection provokes and supports ethno-political conflict smoldering. At the same time, methods which are discussed and offered for ethno-conflictogenious process regulation appear to be primarily directed at intra-Russian factors, poorly touching upon regional factors and almost excluding geopolitical factors group from the analysis.


Cultural and ideological factors for ethnic nationalism practice to be secured within governmental organization of Northern Caucasus nations are as follows:

  1. state organization value which is ideologically substantiated not on the basis of positive law norms and civil society values yet within the framework of ethnic nationalism conception. Such a viewpoint reproduces ethnic stereotypes of collective law and supports the inconsistencies between cognitive and axiological aspects of social consciousness which combines awareness of individual civic rights with collective entities values defending;
  2. republic official authorities ignoring the aims of law values formation and social interactions law patterns introduction on the level of masses consciousness and behavior which, in its turn, results in supporting paternalism and authoritarianism values.



Ivanov S.M.

St. Petersburg State University


The idea of linear historical space in consciousness of the researchers is replaced with idea "curved, riven of historical space", or discrete time, i.e. determined of globalization break with tradition in "South" and contradiction of "progress – recourse" of modern "North". For a similar type of historical thinking characteristic there is a comprehension of ambiguity of achievement of a world(global) civilization as a whole and separate her(it) civilization, historical-cultural files, all going deep to be gone between the rich and poor countries, inability of separate regions "to be entered" in those trend of world(global) development, which are dictated economically and military-political by dominant western civilization.

As it is represented, is one of revolutions of public consciousness, which to mankind should be gone through in XXI in. And, a point of readout here are at all events of September 11, 2001 in USA. At all possible(probable) variety of opinions, we see for ourselves as what 1968 – time of creation informal, but rather influential in intellectual and political circles both West and East of organization scientific – members "of the Roman club". The reports of this organization prepared per last decades of left century, were devoted to global problems of present time and already then became an appreciable mark in comprehension by world global community coming new order..



Karpenko A.D.,

PhD, ass. proff. Of St.Petersburg State University, Department of conflictology, Co-director of

Russian-American Program on Conflictology, Russia


What waits the Russian conflictology, this young interdisciplinary science? What will occur with becoming conflicting  practice in Russia?

Events of last time specify change of strategy of the government concerning interaction with the Russian society. In the near future development of a civil society, most likely, will be suspended. Some elements of a civil society will be fixed or inhibited. The public opinion determines the civil consent through strengthening of the government, putting in order, inevitability and rigidity of punishment.


Conflict’s  practice will adapt in the near future for changed conditions. The intermediary part of practice in social and economic conflicts will test pressure from the side literally all participants of the conflict. The trunk-call component can develop in a zone of intersectoral interaction: the first and second sectors, and also inside first (public sector). For example, application of conflictology practice in work of the conciliatory commissions is perspective. In qualitative aspect more complex kinds of negotiations  will be fixed.


The certain help can render entering into a society technologies on Conflictology with the purpose of training at least to two kinds of activity: to management and skill of practical forming of attitudes with all participants on the basis of their interests.




The conflicts of Society and Science in the development of current biotechnology and genetics

Klestova Z. S.

The Institute of Veterinary Medicine of UAAS, Kiev-151, Ukraine.

Conflicts are a significant part of complex systems. Science is one of the most interesting areas for both scientists and society in general. Many conflicts and tensions in society are associated with science and its role in society, although this is not often obvious.

One of the global conflicts in science is fundamentally new scientific achievements which, in line with potential benefits and solutions to imminent problems, also bring about potential hazards, including those of a global nature.

The progress in genetics and biotechnology is very significant. Now concerns many aspects: creation and implementation of genetically modified plants, animals and other organisms, new means of treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases, new pharmaceutical preparations, gene therapy and so on, on the one hand, and preservation of genefund and human health, on the other hand. All the above problems are already directly associated with ethical issues and the ethical principles of scientists may become the only barrier to introduction of scientific miracles into society. Science especially genetics and biotechnology became now one of the most interesting areas for both scientists and society in general. Quite a number of conflicts mentioned above are directly related to genetics. This is natural because it has been in genetics where innovations and new knowledge have come into contact with society’s ideas or with an individual’s direct interests. For this reason, genetics has relatively broader experience of conflicts and their their resolutions based on ethical considerations. Therefore genetics can serve as one of the global models of interaction between science and society.

Some aspects of conflicts and tensions in Society and Science relative to the development of current biotechnology and genetics are considered. In the article the attention on such moments will be focused: plant’s biotechnology; microorganism’s biotechnology; genetically modified animals; cloning; genetically modified foods; gene therapy; biotechnology and bioterrorism; biotechnology and globalization processes; religious and biotechnology; ethic’s aspects of the application of genetics’ and biotechnology’s achievements.



Mikhail Libenson1), F. O. Aleksandrov2),  

Professor, S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute (GOI), St.Petersburg, Russia



Definition of the conflict as dynamic process in which the determining role is played with positive feedback between the «current" results of the conflict and its  incentive motives is given. On the simple modeling circuit it is shown, that the factors of influence which are not creating chains of return "feedback”, quickly turn to specific "noise". From a set of elements of interference the internal and external motives, factors determined by group «internal self-excitation» and «external influence» for each of the sides participating in the conflict are allocated, and also some foreign force, aspiring to mitigate the conflict.


Despite lacking quantitative criteria of an estimation of the specified factors which are taken into account in mathematical model, it is possible to check up its basic suitability to an estimation of a disputed situation if it is possible to classify on a sign and a degree of influence feedback existing and-or arising during the conflict. It is executed for the international conflicts.


For prevention or stabilization comprehensible and natural the variant when peace-making efforts are proportional to a difference tensions, saved up by the sides can seem, and are directed on both conflicting parties sides. However, as it managed to be shown in the general view not only linear, but also the nonlinear feedback, similar «peace-making efforts» are not capable to stop the conflict since they are weakened in process of approach of the sides equality of forces.


If  "peace-making" influence on each of the sides of the conflict proportionally to the sum of tensions saved up by the sides, how it follows from the carried out analysis, it can stabilize a disputed situation. For this purpose it is necessary, that efforts have been directed on both conflicting sides with an identical pressure, irrespective of saved up each party side of "intensity", or potential. Efforts will be sufficient if they will prevail over the average factor of self-excitation of the sides of the conflict, and the conflicting sides will react to preparations of other side more strongly, than on own incentive motives. Otherwise sooner or later there will be an instability.





 Lincoln William F.
CRI Executive Director,

William F. Lincoln is the Executive Director of the "Conflict Resolution, Research and Resource Institute" headquartered in Tacoma Washington [USA]. Mr. Lincoln is an experienced practitioner in  negotiating and mediating disputes as well as developing conflict prevention, management, and resolution systems in various nations of Eastern Europe, Central America and Africa. Lincoln is also one of the founders and serves as Co Director of the thirteen year old St. Petersburg headquartered "Russian-American Program on Conflictology"

Although Lincoln briefly acknowledged the usually referred common causal factors of tensions and conflict in urban centers [i.e., racial, ethnic, class and gender discrimination; economic disparity; "under" and unemployment; high population densities often to the point of overcrowding; increasing incidents of crime; inadequacy of social services including questionable quality of public education; congested highways and tense time consuming commutes; pollution and the absence of environmental urban justice; neither shrinking tax bases and/or the unwise use of public funds; perceived non responsive government; et cetera], the address quickly focused upon a political dynamic that produces negative psychological repercussions, namely, (i) the loss of faith, trust and hope in governmental and social systems coupled with varying degrees of hostility toward all or some of its entities, and (ii) frequent displacement of cause and blame upon the disenfranchised while in turn these victims project the causes of their plight upon whomever they believe constitutes the "host" society.

Lincoln suggested that as a result of tensions in society, particularly within the cities, elections in democratic governments often seem to be primarily therapeutic as citizenry who still actually choose to vote do so as they either register themselves against particular candidates and their respective political platforms or yet again reinvest themselves yet again in a strand of hope that this time change will occur. But the contests between orderly and rapid social change -- between responsive, equitable, and practical change -- continue. And what happens when people have lost all hope or feel that they no longer have
anything to lose? They find one another, and then become powerful and sometimes dangerous forces for change -- that's how revolutions are born and sustained.

Lincoln stated that much of the tensions in the city, in society as a whole, and even among nations is due to local, regional and national governments not understanding the complexity and seriousness  of making and keeping  promises which he states are "absolutes" as are fact, truth, trust and purity -- not mere statements of intents, not premature utterances made without first thoroughly assessing the situation, and certainly not lies stated for the sake of temporal or political expediency. The address concluded with a comprehensive examination of  the functional ingredients that comprise any promise:(i) filling the void of uncertainty with certainty; determining the (ii) perimeters, (iii) specific terms and conditions, and (iv) time frames for which the promise is in effect; assessing (v) one's own capability and (vi) one's own level of commitment; being aware that (vii) once the promise has been accepted then technically the promise receiver will have to agree with any modifications, (viii) all promises will be consciously or subconsciously informally or formally evaluated, and (ix) a breach of the promise may very well not only result in negative impacts of unknown duration upon the promise maker's credibility and relationships, but may produce negative impacts upon persons unknown; and (x) all promises are sealed by a symbol whether by an accepted cultural code or by verbal expressions or by behavioral acts such as a signature, a hand shake, an appropriate kiss or other acceptable gestures.

As stewards of the processes of conciliation, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, collaborative planning, and cooperative problem solving conflictologists have the responsibility to assist in establishing and maintaining the credibility of responsive and effective governance as one meaningful way to begin to reduce tensions in society between those governing and the governed.



Problems, Models, Tools and Perspectives of Conflictology

Makarenko[1] A.S.

Institute for Applied System Analysis at National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI)

At the threshold of XX1 century the world faces serious challenges: the ecological and food consumption problems, the international security after the Cold War, the accelerating rate of changes in the basic fields of life. The notion of 'conflict' is usual in technical and social sciences as well as in practice. The nature of conflict, participating agents, conflict resolution can be quite different in those various areas. Quite naturally, different methods are used for describing and modeling conflict situations in those different areas. .In technical field, apart from the classical game theory (Kiny, Ripha, P.Axelrod), the differential games, conflicts in the mass service systems and parallel computations were developed, as well as multi-goal games with non-antagonistic interests (Germeyer, Vatel, Moiseev).

In social sciences some other fruitful concepts of conflicts were developed. First is a general concept of conflict in philosophy. Next are such things as the conflict of classes as motive forces on history (K. Marx), the role of violence and frustration in society (G. Young), conflict of generation (H. Ortega-i- Gasset), conflict between instinct and civilization norms, and so on. Also there are different political, military, geopolitical, economical, ecological conflicts. Sociology, social psychology, politology formulated its own original theories: L. Koser, R. Darendorph, L. Blau, K. Boulding, and others. There exist also many investigations on practical solutions of conflict (P.Axelrod, Fisher and Ury) and on negotiations as the tool for conflict resolution.

The analysis of conflicts and their possible application to the problems of conflicts between science and society is considered from the system point of view. The new approach is suggested for the modeling conflict processes and negotiations in the conflict theory. The approach is based on combination of neuronet type of models with associative memory and methods of dynamical system analysis. The mathematical model of negotiations is proposed and analyzed. Applications to East/West, society/science, development of society conflicts are described. Prospects for development of science, education and NGO as confliclty ruled processes are discussed.

Keywords: Conflict theory, neuronet models, science, Eastern science, open society.



Ambassador J. McDonald,

Chairman, Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, VA, USA

Why has the world become more violent in the last few years?

I have three theories.

1.  Empire theory-One hundred years ago the world was dominated by ten great empires. They kept the lid on internal conflict within their respective empires.

The last of those ten empires collapsed in 1991and today no one is empowered to cope with internal conflict. The UN Charter is based on national sovereignty and can’t do it.

2.   Ethnicity-Most conflicts today are ethnic and take place because of the denial of three non-negotiable issues -  the denial of language, religion and culture as a way to control ethnic groups. This does not work. It only breeds violence.

 3. Global Structure – We are not designed as a world to cope with today’s conflicts. There are 37 conflicts in the world today in which more than 1000 people will be killed. They are all internal, within national borders. For the past 350 years the world has been based on the nation-state system and we only know how to cope with inter-state conflict, not intra-state conflict. We as a global system are paralyzed and we don’t know how to act because the nature of conflict has changed dramatically during the last decade.

 There is a vacuum out there and we, as governments, don’t know how to fill it.  



Ambassador J. McDonald,

Chairman, Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, VA, USA

Globalization could not happen during the 45 years of the Cold War because the two super-powers prevented this concept from developing. It only after 1992 that change began to take place and not all change was positive.

One of the negatives was the rise of internal ethnic conflicts which led to tensions, violence and death. Some non-governmental organizations from the United States started in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s to step forward and start, in a small way, to fill the vacuum left by government inaction,

One of those NGO’s was the Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy which I co-founded with Dr. Louise Diamond in 1992. We take a systems approach to peace and focus on the non-violent resolution of international ethnic conflict. We work with the people, training them in conflict resolution skills and helping them through dialogue and leadership to empower them to meet and work with “the enemy.”

We make a positive impact on social tensions and violence. I gave specific examples of our work in Cyprus, Nepal, Kashmir, Bosnia, Georgia, Libya and drinking water and sanitation.

NGO’s can make a difference and can do things in the area of peacebuilding that governments do not seem able to do.



Oglesby, Kathleen ,

Conflict Resolution Research &Resource Institute, Inc., Tacoma, WA, USA


Growth management for urban and rural areas requires policy decisions in many areas. King County in Washington State, USA has chosen their framework policies as economic development, the environment, affordable housing, land use and transportation.

  It is important to King County to determine which groups of citizens will impact the decision making process and we work to make sure they have representatives involved in the process. We also make sure our employees who will be working with those groups are involved at every step

 We will discuss the types of conflicts that most often occur in these decision making processes.

 We have developed conflict resolution at all levels of the decision making process prior to the actual decision being made, once the decision has been made we have designed conflict resolution processes for those affected by the decision.

 In conclusion, urban development is very conflict generating, we have learned to have our processes clearly defined, have the conflict resolution  mechanisms decided upon before the process begins, and to bring all the affected parties together at the same table.  Everyone's role needs to be clearly defined at the beginning of the process. When decisions are made they must contain conflict resolution mechanisms for the future.

King County is the 12th largest county in the USA. It provides regional services to 39 cities and urban services to the rural residents who do not live in a cit. 

 Seattle is the largest city within King County and has about 575,000 residents, the rest of the county makes up the total population of 1.7 million people.

 Growth management for urban and rural areas requires policy decisions at many levels of government. King County has chosen the following as their  framework policies for making these decisions :


1.          Economic development , the indicators for this include wages , household incomes , the percentage of the population who live below poverty , job creation , new business start ups , and employment in industries that export products .

2.          The Environment , these indicators are air quality , water quality , the existence of wet lands , the presence of wildlife, especially salmon and other endangered species , noise levels and solid waste (garbage).

3.          Affordable Housing indicators are homelessness, the average cost of housing, the apartment vacancy rate and the trend of housing costs compared to income.

4.          Land Use indicators are new housing construction, employment, acres of park and open space and acres of forest and fame lands.

5.          Transportation indicators are the number of residents who commute one way to work in 30 minutes or less, the number of public transit trips per person, the percentage of residents who use alternatives to a single occupancy car and the ability to move freight and goods on the highway. 

 Groups who impact the decision making process include scientific experts such as biologists, engineers, botanists, statisticians, economists and environmental specialists. To this group are added the policy experts such as urban planners, governmental staff specialists and growth management experts. When the experts are convened then citizens, developers, builders, business leaders, environmentalists and, of course, the politicians also added to complete the group.

Creating a group which represents these diverse interests can almost guarantee that conflict will be created. The most common sources of conflict occur between the developers and the environmentalists, between the scientific experts themselves, between the rural and urban citizens, between the cities and between the cities and the county, between the citizens and the politicians and any combination of the above.

When creating the group to be involved it is critical to have a process for conflict resolution at all levels of the decision making process which should be agreed upon before the substantive discussions occur. It is also critical to determine at the beginning of the process what the scope of the group will be and what role they ultimately play. Are they the decision makers or are they a recommending body? Whether they are a voting body or they use a consensus model for decision making must also be determined at the start of the process. Ultimately a decision will rest with a person in authority whether it is a recommendation that has come forth from the group or whether it is a decision to be implemented from the group. This also calls for a conflict resolution process to be in place to allow people who disagree with the decision an opportunity to express their concerns and try to influence the ultimate decision.

 There may be a process of public hearings, telephone hot lines, letters to the elected leaders, etc. In addition to those processes there may be a more formal process for resolution including a formal hearing board which has authority to uphold or overturn the decision or there might be a third party such as a judge or arbitrator who has the authority to rule on the decision or there may be a third party who mediates disputes which may include multiple parties.

Urban development processes are generally full of conflict situations. It is critical to have the process clearly defines at the beginning and have the conflict resolution mechanisms agreed upon prior to the work of the group beginning. All affected parties need to be brought to the table, while that may be more cumbersome and generate more conflict the ultimate decision will be better and the conflict duration should actually be shorter. Everyone who has a part in the decision making process should have their role clearly defined and understood, everyone should know who actually gets to have a say in the decision.

 Once the decision has been made the review process for the future should be a part of the recommendation and it should include the conflict resolution processes that will be used in the review and the ongoing implementation.


The Territorial Distribution of Lithuania’s National Communities in Years 1989-2001 – the possibility of social tensions

Paltanavichute G.

Vilnius University, Lithuania


During last 12 years the political, economic, and social conditions in Lithuania experienced considerable changes that happened in internal and international migration trends and streams. All these changes influenced Lithuania’s national structure by changing it in its quality and quantity as well. Not only the national structure has changed on entire Lithuania’s territory, but the territorial distribution of individual national communities as well. Nevertheless, the purposes of this work is to survey Lithuania national communities’ territorial distribution, as well as changes in it during the period of Independence and are changes of national communities territorial distribution possibility of social tensions. The work refers to data of General Census of the Population of years 1989 and 2001.

Key words: The Territorial distribution, Lithuania’s national communities, national minorities, national majority, social field, social tension.






Podoprigora Boris A.

President of St. Petersburg

Club of Conflictologists, Russia

The Map of internationally recognized conflicts has been developed at the threshold of millennium by leading peacemaking and conflict monitoring centers in Western Europe and North America.  This map is mottled with multi-colored symbols of losses and injustices. There were 231 internationally recognized conflicts in the world – ethnic, religious, acute political ones, evident or potential… Considering the references and requisites of conflictologists’ and other related forums, there are at least 50 institutes now concerned with aforesaid global unrest. In 1987, there were 14 institutes viewed  77 conflicts. After about 15 years, the number of conflicts  has  grown 3 times as much, and the quantity of the concerned institutes increased in 4 times. Is the conflict management fed with what it – according to its nature – should actually exclude? Even approaching the double standards problem, we stumble over the term that has become common for the professional community, i.e. conflict management. Does this particular management take something from  a rheostat – today we are to aggravate a conflict, and extinguish it tomorrow? Isn't it the political impact that conceals the results of peacemaking efforts revealed by the motley map of human tragedies?

While approaching the declared subject, we face another phenomenon that has become particularly urgent in antiterrorism era: at least 70 per cent of conflicts happen within Islamic world. But even most of impartial conflict managers represent the Euro-Christian society. That is why they view a conflict through a certain window: we are loyal taxpayers - they are all troublemakers. However, we should not be carried away by the world conflicts picture we have cognized – what do we know about tribal wars between fuahlla and malinke in Guinea?

 A conflictologist, who estimates or settles an international crisis, inevitably considers certain priorities originating from three sorts of rights, which are at the same time create basic elements of civilization: the rights of states to defend their integrity, the rights of nations for self-determination, and human rights. In most of cases this ordinance is based on humanitarian law. The latter, in a practical sense, gives the priority to human rights, which are often politicized. The selective sympathies of conflict managers to separatist "national liberation struggle" are that often, as well. And even more selective is a conflict manager (brought up in a certain political culture) while formally signifying the right of state to defend its sovereignty.

 The same problems await social scientists of all fields when developing criteria of so called areas.

 Thus, the forming of four areas comes in agenda of Europe’s Integration and, in fact, they are coherent to social standards for civilized community. Hereby two areas touch upon conflictologically very  sensitive security sphere.

The first area – freedom, security and justice – provides for achievement of common values, i.e. democracy, human rights, and law supremacy.

The second area characterizes the external security. The issues of international order provision are reviewed, and counterterrorist measures are developed within its frameworks.

It is obvious that the consideration of security parameters will not be limited by theoretical models only, but refer to some political practices, involving conflict managers themselves in the dispute.

There might be a situation in conflict management practice when a mostly typical conflict of interests, which can be settled more easily, upgrades to the category of value conflicts – more hard-edged ones. And this could often happen due to the participation of a conflict manager him/herself.

Let us agree that a conflict manager's objectivity depends, first of all, on his/her immunity to double standards. This kind immunity deficit brings our conflictologist act as a mere advisor of his/her "favorite" political team, despite having in possession settling (mediating) objective technologies?

Let us exemplify this, taking into account that very selection of events releases political views of a conflict manager, as well. But taking these examples (i.e. the models they represent) out of a conflict manager’s supervision, "reassigning" them to lawyers, political, and cultural experts eventually gives the conflict science an outlook of self-removal from the international practice.

The restoration of the UK territorial integrity in the conflict with Argentine over Falklands, anti-separatist measures of the "federal center" in the Northern Ireland, in the Spanish Country of Basques are represented as adequate both in publicist and special releases. But actually the same actions of Belgrade with respect to "twice former" Yugoslavia, Beijing in Tibet, and Moscow in Chechnya are often depicted from another point of view. The fact that East Timor is at the "political roadside" now does not raise any doubts. Nevertheless, the separatist movement on its territory, that resulted in East Timor's independence from Indonesia, reveals the principal question of the conflict science once again – what are the criteria that determine the conditions and adequacy of the use of force, concessions to separatists, or support of the "federal center"? What is the place of a conflict manager while developing these criteria?

If one is based on the presumption of human rights, then why the victims suffered by Chechens (with all versions and specifications with this regard being agreed upon) are more and longer focused on, than "40 – 60 thousand of Russian residents of Chechnya-Ingushetiya lost in peacetime (1991 – 1994s,  and 1996 – 1999s)?" (Defense of the Future. Caucasus in search of peace. Edited by F.Duve and H.Talgavini. Published by Glagol. OSCE – the freedom of press representative, 2000, p. 185, ISBN 5-87532-061-3).

The same conflict circumstances in light of personal interpretation still more confuse the situation, even on the black-and-white background of  global counterterrorist efforts. Muqtada Al-Sadhr – the leader of 10 million of Iraqi Shiites – enjoys a steady reputation of a terrorist. While Ahmed Zakayev, the commander of Arab mercenaries in Chechnya (the ones who cut Western telephone operators’ heads off) is treated as a political refugee. Almost with a hint to the fact that Mr. Zakayev, the former theatre actor is no more dangerous than Santa Claus he exposed every X-mas in the past.

Isn't it a conflict manager who, unlike a lawyer, considers the mythological component of a conflict in whole, must define the boundary between its essential parameters and notions of it? By the way, what are the essential parameters of an international leveled conflict? And does the conflict between law and politically colored criminal fall within the frameworks of conflictology  practice at all? The more so, since if it is only a court that is entitled to recognize it as this one?

Is the situation related to the violation of the right for security subjected to conflictology expertise? Should a conflict manager, with a view of prevention of another international crisis, point out when the realization of such a right leads to the excessive self-defense? For instance, if the entry of Baltic states into NATO should be viewed as their self-defense measures exclusively in the political and judicial environment of the North Atlantic Alliance, then it would be quite logical to assume that another side in another environment will see these measures as a threat to its security, and make reciprocal moves. This makes senseless both the judicial practice and the measures taken

We do not overestimate the perfection of the best of the worlds. But we won’t underestimate the capabilities of the conflict science, though practical value of it still raise doubts over its affiliation with the humanities. Let us emphasize  the significance of the questions asked, including the rhetorical ones. Doesn't the conflict science carry just a sum of  know-hows for politicians producing situations they enjoy? Aren't its theory and practice, as far from each other, as the particular issue of double standards, and War and Peace problems are?



Problems and perspectives of modern peace-making[2]


Postolenko I. G., Alexandrov F. O.

St. Petersburg Association of Scientists and Scholars


Since the creation of the UN forces for maintaining peace [1], peace-making as a social and cultural phenomenon has turned into a diverse system of ideas, views, legal acts, public, political and state policies and initiatives, work directions of international organizations and state departments [2]. Generally, two principal interpretations of peace-making can be singled out in the modern world. The first one implies regarding peace-making as a mere technical task: to bring fighting parties apart, to introduce observants or to conduct a peace-making operation. The second interpretation regards peace-making as practice aimed to maintain and restore peace. Within this interpretation, peace-making mission and ideology can be formulated as stopping wars both in case of concrete military actions on a specific territory and in case of war as a certain socio-cultural mechanism. Consequently, a number of questions are raised. Without answering these questions development of the second interpretation of peace-making present serious problems:

·         what are the socio-cultural functions of wars;

·         what problems arise by rejecting wars;

·         to what extent are such peace-making claims valid;

·         how can the second interpretation of peace-making be realized;

The present theses aim to outline area of problems encountered by conventional interpretation of peace-making as well as to substantiate the interpretation of peace-making as a certain approach to armed conflicts or conflicts presenting danger for the world.


About Communication Skills and Tools of Interdisciplinary Contacts on International Scale

Pustolnik Izold

Tartu observatory, Estonia


One of the dominant trends in the development of S&T in Europe and USA in the recent years lies in the introduction of numerous diversified educational schemes which reflect the urgent needs of innovations in knowledge production dictated by new demands of global market economy. Manifestation of these trends can be seen in organisation of various conferences and workshops advertising the new ideas and approaches in educational and training practices, application of various training courses for students, flexible mobility schemes, revision of traditional university curriculum with a strong accent on student oriented, internet based educational programs.

Thus, in all evidence a new cultural, technological and societal environment is emerging for future generations of researchers which will be strikingly different from the arena where the XXth century "breed" of scientists has been brought up. Can we hope for a continuity of transition? What share of the accumulated scientific legacy can be inherited by new generations and what part of it is imprinted in the extant institutional fabric thereby already making it the subject of studies for historians? These and many similar questions arise here and there at various levels during scientific meetings, gatherings of the learned societies etc. Cross-disciplinary links and discussions prove to be one of the most efficient instruments for stimulating and fermenting creativity at the boundaries separating different scientific branches. In our report we make an attempt to summarise our own limited experience of participation and organisation of international conferences during the last three years dedicated to the problems of archeaoastronomy and discuss what lessons can be learned from the dialogue between the representatives of humanities and of the basic research.



The Many Faces of Islam (Finding, studying, translating, and publishing antiradical Islamic polemical works)


Rezvan E.A.  

Deputy Director of Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography Russian Academy of Sciences ,

St. Petersburg, Russia


 “The third world war has begun … the information war. Lenin won the first, the USSR lost the second, and now bin Laden has started the third.”


In recent years, the radical Muslim intelligentsia, many representatives of which live in European capitals, has worked with energy and dedication on the idea of a new Caliphate “from Mauritania to Sintzyan,” destined to become the “second force” (in place of the USSR) and to “restore the greatness of Muslim civilization.” The advance guard in the struggle to realize this project consists of a number of interconnected organizations that espouse neo-Wahhabite Islam. Their activities receive financial support from a number of private and state-sponsored charitable foundations.

The pre-September 11 status quo made it impossible to bring this idea to fruition. Despite the enormous funds invested in neo-Wahhabite propaganda, the ideology has not gripped the majority of Muslims. The supporters of these ideas needed a powerful stimulus capable of provoking a sharp reaction from a large part of the Islamic world. This stimulus could only take the form of the sufferings endured by thousands of Muslims victimized by the bombs and tanks of the “infidels.” The main aim of the attack on the World Trade Center, which killed so many and changed our understanding of the damage terrorists can do, was to manipulate governments and the Western press into radically destabilizing the situation in the Muslim world, primarily in Pakistan. Battle is joined for the hearts and minds of Muslims, and the most important weapon is the word.

Islam has many faces. Its regional forms, which took shape in the crucible of a local cultural substratum, basic elements of the ideology, and numerous and extremely diverse influences from without, are usually self-sufficient and undoubtedly of equal worth. It is obvious that only a “local Islam,” nurtured by the full range of religious traditions and preferences, inextricably bound up with the history of a particular people with its victories and tragedies, can adequately meet the spiritual needs of the faithful. Only such a version of Islam can be an important force for stability in society.

As we noted above, in recent years we have witnessed well-organized and generously financed attempts to impose on Muslims the world over, including Russian Muslims, traditions and customs, ritual practice and social points of reference that stem from the spiritual, social, and political experience of a numerically and culturally marginal section of the Islamic world. In a number of cases, the adepts of this ideology have augmented large-scale propaganda campaigns with armed force (for example, the invasion of Dagestan, which formed the prologue to the second Chechen campaign).

The well-oiled propaganda mechanism that serves so-called “radical Islam” relies today on formidable financial and intellectual resources, a network of research and teaching centers that prepare experienced polemicists, equipping them with extended arguments. It is especially difficult for Russian Muslims to counteract this propaganda. Beginning in the 1930s, in the USSR some forty thousand imams, mullahs, and ‘ulama’ (Islamic scholars) were repressed; many of them were representatives of the Islamic reformist tradition and made up national religious elites. The all-encompassing influence of an atheist state erased from societal consciousness even the most basic norms, traditions, and customs that comprised the history and culture of “an Islam of one’s own.” Today, this is a tremendous aid to the proponents of radical Islamic movements, who seek to impose on Russian Muslims systems and customs that are entirely alien to them.

In this light, we face the pressing task of studying, reviving, and disseminating the religious heritage, traditions, and ritual practice of Muslims in an attempt to counteract the virulent and destructive propaganda campaign of Islamic radicals, which presents in the first place a danger to Islam itself. The project proposed here seeks to discover, study, publish, and translate into the main languages of the Muslim world Islamic polemical works of an antiradical nature.

One of the Muslim thinkers whose legacy is in this regard vital is Muhammadjan Rustamov (1892-1989), better known as the domla Hindustani, a major Hanafi theologian of the Fergana Valley and Tajikistan.

Hindustani[3] was born in the village of Charbag (not far from Kokand) into the family of a well-known regional religious figure. He studied in Kokand and Bukhara. Among his teachers was the famed Balkh scholar Muhammad Gaus Sayyid-zadeh. After the latter’s death in 1921, Hindustani continued his education in one of the madrasas of Kashmir (the source of his nisba), where he learned Urdu and Hindi. In 1928 Hindustani performed the hajj, returning home one year later, where he was arrested three times in the course of anti-religious purges (between 1933 and 1953). In total, he spent eight and a half years in exile in various parts of Russia. In 1943 domla Hindustani was drafted into the army, wounded near Minsk at the end of 1944, and decommissioned. From the mid-1950s until his later years he served as the imam of the Mawlana Charkhi mosque in Dushanbe, where he died and was buried.

Toward the end of the 1950s, Hindustani organized an illegal study group (hujra) for the believers at his mosque. Over time the number of students grew to include Muslim figures of no small renown in the Fergana region. In addition to teaching, Hindustani wrote treatises, commentaries on religious works and mystical poetry. His major work is a six-volume commentary on the Qur’an in Uzbek, completed in 1984 and intended, in the author’s words, for young students of theology and ordinary Muslims who have difficulty understanding the scripture. Hindustani penned other works as well: Isharat as-sabbab, Pand nama-yi hazrat-i Mawlavi, translations with commentary (in both Uzbek and Tajik) on major treatises and literary works (Qasida al-Burda by al-Busiri, Mawlud al-Nabi by al-Barzanji, Sharh-i Qasida-yi by Amali). Of especial interest are the audio and video recordings of his sermons (va‘z), discussions with his pupils, and disputes.

During the final decade of his life, Hindustani became deeply concerned by the widening schism he saw affecting the Muslims of Central Asia, including his own pupils, under the influence of Wahhabite propaganda. He conducted an active written and spoken polemic with a group of ‘ulama’ from Fergana and Tajikistan (including some of his former pupils) who, in his view, had deviated from the precepts and religious practice of the Hanafi school. He did not, for example, consider it wise to alter the prayer ceremony, as his opponents proposed in keeping with Wahhabi practice. Hindustani spoke out harshly against attempts to pronounce “un-Islamic” such customs as the reading of specific ayat from the Qur’an and prayers (du‘a’) for the soul and forgiveness of the deceased, to heal the sick and even afflicted animals (ruqya; Turk. dam solmoq), reverence for “saints” (wali, pl. awliya’), the veneration of their graves.

Basing himself on Hanafi injunctions, Hindustani firmly rejected the political ambitions of his opponents. He felt in particular that in the time of Stalinist repression and tribulation he, and many other ‘ulama’ succeeded in surviving thanks to faith in the will of Allah (tawakkul), an ability to bear hardship stoically and humbly (al-sabr), and that all misfortunes were sent down by God to test the mettle of one’s faith. Hindustani felt that the reward for these qualities was the liberalization of state religious policy during perestroika (the opening of mosques, permission to pray freely, etc.). He was not a supporter of violent struggle for the faith (al-jihad as-saghir) unless one could be sure of its success. To doom oneself and other Muslims to a senseless death at the hands of a stronger opponent was a greater sin than inaction. For this reason, the peaceful initiatives of the “infidels” and the liberal treatment of Muslims in a secular state should be seen in a positive light. He described opposing views as “Wahhabi.” In essence, the dispute was over the meaning of the term jihad: local religious “reformers” followed such ideologues of radical Islam as al-Mawludi and Sayiid Qutb in deeming it a religious obligation (fard) to declare jihad not only against secular authorities in a Muslim country, but against other members of the Muslim community (umma) who did not share their views. Hindustani was strongly opposed to cleansing Islam with ideas “imported” from the ideologues of religious and political movements in Muslim countries. He demonstrated the baseless nature of these ideas in his satirical work Hajviya-yi Muhammad ‘Abdu, in which he directed no small amount of irony at the leading ideologue of the Egyptian religious and political movement “the Muslim Brotherhood.”

In this regard, Hindustani’s two final treatises are telling. He wrote them in response to anonymous letters with tricky questions on Islamic dogma. Hindustani stood accused of conformity, a refusal to pronounce justified the armed struggle (ghazavat) of the mojaheds in Afghanistan, of total indifference to political action “for the rebirth of Islam,” and so on. Both works were untitled. The first (which remained uncompleted) is a short historical essay on the “mazhab of those who have strayed,” i.e., the Wahhabites. It provides a brief description of the dogmatic and ritual prescriptions of Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhab. The second work consists of “Answers” to questions that Hindustani describes as “Wahhabite,” although the description is not entirely applicable to the dogmatic and ritual purism and political ambitions of “fundamentalists” who were then growing more active in the region.

Hindustani was the first to apply the term “Wahhabism” to the nascent Islamist movement in the Soviet republics of Central Asia. His immense religious authority and erudition aided the acceptance of the term “Wahhabite” to describe not only Rahmatullah-‘allama, ‘Abuvali-qari, and their followers, but later religious groups. The term was first accepted by several traditionalist Hanafi theologians and only later caught on among ordinary Muslims and in official circles. His Qur’anic commentary is the sharpest answer to the “Bible” of radical Islam – the tafsir (commentary) “In the Shade of the Qur’an” by Sayyid Qutb. The latter is translated to all the basic languages, the work of Hindustani is still in manuscript.

At present, the written and oral (audio and video recordings) legacy of Hindustani, held in private and state collections in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, though of great significance in the current ideological struggle within Islam, remains unpublished and understudied. Hindustani himself, with his authority as a thinker and victim of religious oppression, could undoubtedly become a symbolic figure in the struggle against the destructive activities of Islamist radicals.

The fate of Hindustani’s works is only one example of how a religious legacy of contemporary significance that goes beyond the borders of Central Asia remains in essence forgotten and underutilized. The project proposed here aims to find, study, and publish in the original and in translation the works of Hindustani himself and those of his notable predecessors: domla Ikrimcha, Fitrat (for example, his Guide to Salvation), the naqshbandi risala. They have been preserved in the library of the SPIOS and in rare Central Asian lithographs. The project will culminate in the publication of a series of highly important works mentioned above (in original and in English, in the Web and in book form). To obtain our goals we have to stress the essential importance of professional, hitherto unavailable, typesetting technology to publish such materials in an authoritative and convincing way. I am sure that in case of its realization the project will save many lives and plenty of money.


Conflict Resolution of Ethnic Migration in Southern Russia: Myths and Reality


Savva M.V.

Krasnodar, Kuban State University


The significant part of all the migrants settled in Russia during last 15 years (both forced migrants and economical ones) has chosen Stavropol, Rostov and Krasnodar regions as their residence. From 1990 to 2001 the factor of migrant increase in Russia was 21, 4 % in total, and in the North-Caucasian region – 45, 3 %. It was the highest in the “Russian” southern regions: 111, 3% in Krasnodar region; 95, 4% in Stavropol region; 51, 5% in Rostov region [1].

It is necessary to mention that ethnic structure of migrant flow approximately complies with national proportions of the regional population. Thus, in accordance with the data of Krasnodar regional committee of the state statistics, there are 80,7% of Russians arrived in Krasnodar region in 2002; 5,9% of Armenians; 5,8% of Ukrainians; 0,8 % of Tatars and 0,8 % of Byelorussians [2].  For January 1, 2002 Russians formed 85% of the regional population, Armenians – 4, 9% [3]. At the same time it was migration that has been influencing on formation of big diasporas in the region from 1989.  Those diasporas were formed by the nations which had been represented before by tens or hundreds people (Turkish Meskhetians, Kurds). The essential differences in culture (including system of values), structure of accumulation and consumption of new migrants and local residents set in beginning tension, if the conditions for purposeful integration policy are lacking.

The stable mythic ideas about migration have been formed in the region. The most important of them is that as the result of information policy of the authorities in the RF subjects of the region the public opinion strongly believes that migration is one of the critical regional problems (it is necessary to emphasize particularly the period of governance of N.I.Kondratenko in Krasnodar region – 1996-2000). The migrants were shown as a numerous, homogeneous and aggressive group which contributes to decreasing the living standard of local residents. Such perceptions that form the first myth, still exist today. Even the simplest analysis of the official statistics shows: nowadays it is possible to confirm that the peak of migration increase has bypassed. At the same time the natural decrease of Kuban population, as all over Russia, is significant. Such a tendency can be also observed in other centers of migrant settlement. This migrant decrease was ignored by the public opinion. The analysis of the mass media and announcements of the representatives of the regional authorities confirm that the political elite of Kuban still lives with old ideas about migration that have appeared 8-10 years ago, on the edge of migration, under the conditions of the USSR collapse and public discord all over Russia. The idea of migration malignancy appeared in that period has become the mythic stereotype which is stable, schematized, emotional and far from reality.

The significant part of the people settled in the North Caucasus for the last years considers this territory as their residence. The measures on migration reduce cannot be active for those people. The limiting measures on the regional level regarding migration were well-timed at the beginning of 90s when the migration was a real problem. Now, when the situation has changed, the support of integration of migrants into local community to decrease the risks of conflicts becomes an actual but not deliberate strategy.

[1]      Nikolaev N.M. Population migration in Stavropol region in the end of XX century//Settlements, geopolicy and security of mountain countries. M. – Stavropol. 2001. P. 211

[2]        Statistical characteristics of migration situation in Krasnodar region//Legal aspects of migration. Krasnodar. 2003. P. 58

[3]        National structure of the residents of Krasnodar region//Mass media and interethnic relations in Krasnodar region. Krasnodar. 2003. P. 42

[4]        Vitkovskaya G.S. Forced migration and migrant phobia in Russia//Intolerance in Russia. Old and new phobias. M., 1999. P. – 191.

[5]        Data of the department of migration in Krasnodar region.



Siver Stan,

Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy

Arlington, VA 22209 USA


Patterns found in large scale conflict are repeated, like fractals, in community and organizational conflict, in interpersonal conflict, and in each of us individually. In a sense, the larger conflict exists holographically within the smaller unit. This relationship parallels concepts from Taoism and other spiritual and philosophical traditions.

On a practical level, conflict resolution practitioners can improve their ability to understand a conflict, to facilitate it effectively, and to transform it by first discovering all of the parts or roles of the conflict and the tensions and feelings that exist between the various parts within themselves. This is often difficult to do because even seasoned conflict resolution professionals tend at times to have difficulty seeing themselves in a negative light, or difficulty in seeing what C.G. Jung called “the shadow.”

Conflict practitioners can use the laboratory of their own professional and personal relationships to discover these roles and tensions and their associated rank, power, and privilege issues by closely following signals (nonverbal body cues, linguistics, synchronicities, their own sensory experience, etc.) and discovering the deeper meaning that often lies hidden behind them. In practice, this requires developing an attitude of openness to deep democracy: a belief in the importance of the feelings, experience, and visions of others.



EU  Research in the social sciences

Sors Andrew I

Head of Division “Research in the Social Sciences and Humanities”, DG Research, European Commission


The European Union currently implementing the 6th RTD Framework Programme (FR6) with a total budget of over 17 billion Euros. This Programme is intended to provide a significant contribution to the EU’s competitiveness and sustainable growth as well as to the quality of life of its citizens.

FP6 is the key Community level contribution to the creation of the European Research Area (ERA). The ERA aims to move towards a real internal market for research in Europe.

A substantial part of the financial resources of FP6 are dedicated to 7 major thematic research priorities. One of these is entitled “Citizens and Governance in the knowledge based Society”. With a budget of over 225 million Euros, this priority supports collaborative research in the Social Sciences (and humanities) in relation to the above field.

The Framework Programme is open for participation by all countries and participation by Russian researchers in EU projects is very much welcomed.

Information sources which may be of interest are: Webpage for Priority 7 -, Helpdesk for Priority 7 -, Direct contact to colleagues -

Information on ERA and FP6:




Stepanov E.I.

Centre of Conflictology, RAS, Moscow


Under influence of modern aggressive globalization, conducted by the West under the slogan of total human progress, all culture and history of the people with their saved experience, usual structures of dialogue, vital aspirations, representations about the world and theirselves is subject to cancellation or withdrawal in the sense of civilization. The violent change of values, norms and senses frequently leads to overthrowing of former symbolics, on which the society was based substantially.

A reaction to such aggressive influence of modern globalization and its conductors on sociocultural sphere of life of various ethnoses and regions is not only growing alarm, but also real resistance. In a number of civilizations (Islamic, Indian, Chinese), as the analysts ascertain, a strong tendency emerged to upholding the originality basing on cultural property in its symbolic, valued and institutional forms. In this property the given civilizations also find the important source of their cultural, and consequently any other self-determination, opposition to modern globalism, which is destructive for them. However, this happens not everywhere. The spread of "universal civilization" with its "effective economy and finance" results for some regions as parts of global structure in phenomena determined as "neo-archaisation", "de-industrialisation", "degradation", "negative development".

Thus all world of a modern human civilization is split into three parts: one that imposes to the rest of the world the culture and values as ostensibly most progressive and perspective for all mankind in general, under "globalization"; another, which effectively resists to this imposing and aspires to keep the originality; and, at last, that part which is not capable to resist to this external pressure, gives in to it and by that is exposed to danger of decomposition, deformation, degradation and finally, destruction.

It is hardly necessary to prove specially, that such danger, to a large extent, threatens also Russia - all Russian society as a whole, as well as its separate spheres and regions. The nearest negative consequence of this process - growth of the anomia, marginalization and criminalization of Russian society, which thus appear the downside of modern globalisation.

Therefore the unique, social-sinegretic and conflictologically proved and justified way to prevent the threatening to both the society and the state accident of complete disorder of all conditions and means of Russian society as uniform organism is purposeful and effective organization by the Russian authorities of social work with the population, as a mechanism improving and recovering this public organism of social policy.

As the conditions and means for maintenance of survival and restoration of safety and viability of the population in different Russian territories are rather various, have rather essential specificity, then the task of undertaking their organization and realization, fast, energetic, and "hard", is first of all for regional and municipal branches of authority. And business of the central authority in this respect is to provide their activity legislatively and financially, watching for introduction and observance of "rules of game", appropriate to this purpose and uniting all socially significant activity in uniform complete system, and also performing sanctions for their infringers and "exploders".


Impact of international scientific co-operation on conflict avoidance


Świątek Piotr,

Ministry of Education and Science, Germany

There are more scientist in the world today then ever before. Researchers are successfully integrating their efforts at global level and there is a vast human potential moving around the world. Accounted for a intellectual elite, they should have a considerable impact on cultural interchange and mutual understanding, which requires intimate knowledge. Unfortunately, condition of scientific exchange still make scholars dependent on administrative agreement, national rules and uncertain contracts etc. Based on his own experience from the project “Fit for Europe”, author will give his view, what are the chances for scientific community to become more independent and able to show it’s own position in far-reaching conflicts in Europe and rest of the world.



Tamás Pál

Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest,e-mail:

The management of [social science] expertise in globalised nation-states - with few exceptions [KRASTEV,2000: KENNEDY, 1997, TAMAS,2002]-has not been seriously examined in the academic literature, and the study of experise by academics has generally focused here not on structural, but on the individual [ASHTON-ASHTON,1995; LIBBY-LUFT,1993], or team level [e.g. RICH-SOLOMON-TROTMAN,1997].  The traditional sociological literature on expertise on one side underlines the importance of the skill problem, and on the other side foundations of expertise are understood mainly as a power issue. In this paper I try to concentrate on questions related predominantly to those power problems. This paper builds on the new statism literature and extends the study of expertise by examining it as an attribute of professional organizations, not just of individuals.

Advisory institutions may be classified into three distinct types. Knowledge units are selective in their choice of clients and attempt to develop proprietary knowledge to meet the more specialized needs of such decision makers [GIBBINS-JAMAL, 2001]. These units are highly sozialized with limits on partner autonomy, wide distribution of expertise within the unit, and use of re-training and systematic strategy building rather then reliance on decision making aids and tools. Full service units usually are just opposite, providing general professional knowledge to a broad and undifferentiated clientale. Those think tanks are more entrepreneurial, knowledge is concentrated there in a few experts, and are with wider laitude for partner autonomy. A third type, the relationship firm, combines some client selectivity with some emtrepreneurial operating style [GIBBINS-JAMAL,2001,2]. The organisational, or institutional differences between the units are more important, then the content of the expertise itself.

In the literature about academic impact on policy processes expertise is generally considered to be a characteristic of a person, and not of an organisation. If we understand the expert unit as an organization competing  with similar others among politicians and policy makers then according to PORTER,1980 long-run survival as above-average financial or power-fueled profitability can occur only if a unit has a sustainable competitive advantage. According to Porter"s framework a firm, or unit creates competitive advantage by being unique or the best at delivering some service valued by clients. On the post-socialist policy markets uniqueness of experts is generated in different forms by the combination of empirical data offered by them, the trust of politicians to open themselves to these particular experts as the Others and the communicative abilities in selling professional information to non-professionals.

STEWART,1997 proposed that a firm wishing to add value perceived by clients can develop two types of knowledge: general professional [sector-wide] knowledge, or proprietary [firm-specific] knowledge. For the social science advice that could be translated into area-specific [media, education], or agent-specific [e.g. focused on the socialdemocratic clientale] knowledge. Some texts suggest, that the firm should build-up one or the other type of knowledge.


These strategic choices facing a unit [think tank] with deeper interest in social science expertise can be represented in an expert-client strategy matrix. The axes here represent the space for client acquisition and the type of knowledge developed. Their intersections create four major strategies:



Political actor-specific knowledge

Sector-specific knowledge

Rigid client selection [no space available]

Overpolitized, national [no markets]: KNOWLEDGE STRATEGY

Public administration dependency: FULL SERVICE STRATEGY

Flexible client selection [space available]

Cosmopolitan choices [international organizations]: RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY I. [non-market]

Multi-actor markets [national, international]: RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY II. [market]


Table 1. Knowledge production matrix

Different strategies may develop different expertise management structures [4]:


Expertise management dimensions

Knowledge strategy

Full service strategy

Relationship strategy I.

Relationship strategy II.

1.types of expertise





2.partner autonomy


In between

In between

High compensa-tion

Not actual project-related

Fixed, ofter institutional chanels

Team or firm bases

Individual, unequal

4.expertise diffusion


Partly concentrated





In between

In between dependency


In between



7.academic contacts



In between


8.control mechanisms


In between

In between


9. formalized tools for policy analysis

Almost never

Some times




Table 2. Expertise management dimensions


From the efficiency point of view policy expertise could be analysed again in a matrix of  impacts. The axes here would be centered around directness of influence and paradigmatic- non-paradigmatic strategies offered by the expert unit.

Paradigm /impact

Direct impact

"atmospheric" impact

New paradigm generation


Changing winds

Broad opinion preservation

Active pluralism

Passive pluralism


Table 3. Impact style matrix





Tancher Viktor V.,

Doctor of Philosophy, professor,

Institute of Sociology, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

Generally, sociocultural differences serve as a vital power for society dynamic adaptability to complex challenges of modern civilization. And ability of any society to meet the challenges will depend upon its readiness to transform and to channel unavoidable conflicts into the constructive route. As for Ukraine, this formula contains such elements as a necessity to secure its integrity and to consolidate a National Statehood throughout period of a historic transformation.

Modern Ukraine is characterized with traditional social cleavages as well as with typical for transforming society conflicts. At the same time it contains the specific overlapping “zones of tension” which may seriously destabilize social situation.

The most important lines of tension lie between reach and poor, community and Government, which also overlap each other and in case of Ukraine getting more concentrated on opposite poles.

The existing situation is being threatened to aggravate due to absence of a developed civil society institutions, middle class, and confidence to power, as well as due to still existed regional and ethnic differences, “center – periphery” tensions, language problems (either Russian or Ukrainian), inter-confessional (religion) conflicts etc.

But despite these tensions and latent conflicts the data of Ukrainian Sociological Monitoring Research (carried out by the Institute of Sociology, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) prove the predominance of factors that integrate modern Ukrainian society.   



SCIENCE, TRUTH and TRUST. Permanent and novel challenges, individual and collective responsibilities


Toulouse  Gérard

Laboratoire de physique de l'École normale supérieure, 75231,,France


Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace should be constructed

 (Preamble to the Unesco Constitution, 1946)


To survive in the world we have transformed we must learn to think in a new way

(Nobel Declaration, 2001)


This presentation surveys a selection of actions and statements made by a variety of scientific institutions or individual scientists, and it ends with a few insights.


I .  The Nobel declaration


For the centenary of the creation of the Nobel prizes, all living laureates were invited to Stockholm. Drafted at the initiative of the Canadian chemist John C. Polanyi, a declaration entitled The next hundred years was signed by 110 laureates and issued during the centennial ceremonies, on 11 December 2001.

Note that the Nobel foundation may be viewed as an example of influential and thoughtful scientific NGO. The chemist Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite, was eager to complement the 3 scientific prizes (physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine) with the literature and peace prizes. The economics prize was a later addition (see the Nobel web site at




The most profound danger to world peace in the coming years will stem not from the irrational acts of states or individuals but from the legitimate demands of the world's dispossessed. Of these poor and disenfranchised the majority live a marginal existence in equatorial climates. Global warming, not of their making but originating with the wealthy few, will affect their fragile ecologies most. Their situation will be desperate, and manifestly unjust. It cannot be expected, therefore, that in all cases they will be content to await the beneficence of the rich. If, then, we permit the devastating power of modern weaponry to spread through this combustible human landscape, we invite a conflagration that can engulf both rich and poor. The only hope for the future lies in co-operative international action, legitimized by democracy. It is time to turn our backs on the unilateral search for security, in which we seek to shelter behind walls. Instead we must persist in the quest for united action to counter both global warming and a weaponized world. These twin goals will constitute vital components of stability as we move toward the wider degree of social justice that alone gives hope of peace. Some of the needed legal instruments are already at hand, such as the Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, the Convention on Climate Change, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. As concerned citizens we urge all governments to commit to these goals which constitute steps on the way to the replacement of war by law. To survive in the world we have transformed we must learn to think in a new way. As never before, the future of each depends on the good of all.


Those fourteen sentences do speak for themselves, but it is worth adding that the penultimate one contains an echo coming from the Russell-Einstein Manifesto (1955). This landmark manifesto provided a background for the subsequent creation (in 1957) of the Pugwash Conferences for Science and World Affairs, which became recipient in 1995 of a well deserved peace Nobel prize. The Pugwash Conferences have devised and nurtured many activities aiming at the mitigation of international conflicts (notably during the Cold War) and at the promotion of socially responsible behaviour among the scientific community.



II.  Science Academies


On 21 May 2000, in Tokyo, more than sixty scientific academies belonging to the InterAcademy Panel on international issues ( issued a solemn Statement. Some extracts are reproduced below.




During the 21st century, human society faces the daunting yet inspiring task of forging a new relationship with the natural world. This new relationship is captured by "sustainability," a concept that has emerged from a number of international conferences concerned with regional and global trends in population, development, and the environment. Sustainability implies meeting current human needs while preserving the environment and natural resources needed by future generations.

The Academies of Science of the world, as represented by the signatories to this Statement, offer here a collective set of observations about how the challenges can be addressed. In particular, we focus on what the scientific and technological community can do in the short and longer term, and what the Academies can contribute. In almost every instance, technical and analytical contributions of the scientific and technological community can be critical, but many facets of the problem require economic, social, and political efforts as well.



A. Meeting the Needs of a Larger World Population: Reducing Hunger and Poverty and Preserving Human Well Being

B. Preserving and Maintaining the Environment and the Natural Resource Base

C. Moving Toward Sustainable Human Consumption Patterns



A. Achieve a Much More Equitable Access to and Use of Knowledge

B. Actively Generate New Knowledge

C. Apply the Values of the Scientific and Technological Community to Build Sustainability



To preserve human well-being over the long term, people need to move toward new ways of meeting human needs, adopting consumption and production patterns that maintain the earth's life support systems and safeguard the resources needed by future generations. Yet if current trends in population growth, consumption of energy and materials, and environmental degradation persist, many human needs will not be met and the numbers of hungry and poor will increase.

Such a dismal forecast need not come to pass. Scientific, technological, and health capabilities--if supported by the necessary worldwide political will and international cooperation, and mobilized by appropriate social and economic policies--can produce substantial progress over the next two decades toward a sustainable human future. Realizing this progress will demand a threefold effort by the scientific and technological community: to promote the use of existing knowledge more widely and effectively, to generate new knowledge and beneficial technologies, and to work with governments, international organizations and the private sector to promote a worldwide transition to sustainability.


We, as Academies of Science, pledge our cooperation in these efforts.


Most conspicuous and original in this Statement is the last line. Because the Academies are ancient, genuine emanations of the scientific community, they are endowed with a traditional prestige which gives special influence to their advices. In this context, it is worth emphasizing that the above Statement (in favour of sustainability, openness, equality, etc) is, to my knowledge, the first collective pledge taken by scientific institutions. Pledges in science, so far, had been taken by individuals and restricted to the medical professions. This double evolution (extension to institutions, and to the whole realm of science and technology) constitutes therefore a significant step forward.


III.  An oath for scientists


In a lucid column, published in Europhysics News (Nov/Dec 1999), Sir Arnold Wolfendale, then president of the European Physical Society (a disciplinary regional scholarly society), examined anew the old question of a pledge for scientists.

After recalling that the doctors' Hippocratic Oath is universally acknowledged and serves to allay many fears that patients might otherwise have, the author mentions two new factors: the increasing fragility of the planet to scientific "advances" and the increasing gap between the public and science.

Usual objection: Of course, critics say, "it will be very difficult, what about work for the defence industries?" but then most of the work that we do is difficult; we do not build elaborate theories of the origin of the universe, or the nature of plasmas, without a lot of effort.

Then Wolfendale offers a compact formulation for a scientists' oath:

* I will not, knowingly, carry out research which is to the detriment of humanity.

* If, in the event, research to which I have contributed is used, in my view, to the detriment of [humanity] then I shall work actively to combat its development.

His final comments: It is this continuing responsibility which will, I think, be of such value. Hopefully, the knowledge of such a responsibility by scientists will deter politicians and such like from embarking on unethical activities in the first place; it should also get the public on our side. I am not so naive as to think adoption of an oath of this sort would solve all our problems, but at least it would be a start. Something has to be done, that's for sure.


The notion of "continuing responsibility" is essential indeed. Because the outcome of scientific research (its direct and indirect consequences) is at least partly unpredictable, this continuing responsibility implies a duty of discernment and vigilance, sustained on the long term. Seen in this context, the lives of Andreï Sakharov and David Kelly do provide enlightening examples of courage and dedication, in the accomplishment of such a continuing responsibility.



IV.  The S of Unesco


A few months after the fall of two A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was held in London (1-16 November 1945) the founding Conference of what became the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization. The president of the Conference, Ellen Wilkinson, British minister of education, pleaded eloquently and successfully in favour of the inclusion of science, together with education and culture:

In these days when we are all wondering, perhaps apprehensively, what the scientists will do to us next, it is important that they should be linked closely with the humanities and should feel that they have a responsibility to mankind for the result of their labours ...

Two British scientists played decisive roles at the start of Unesco (1946-1948): the biologist Julian Huxley served as first Director general, and the biologist-turned-historian Joseph Needham as first Head of the Natural Sciences sector.


Within the UN system, Unesco is a special Agency because of the principle of double representation: each country is represented by an ambassador (permanent delegate of the government) and also by a "national commission for Unesco" (representative of civil society). Thus this UN agency has a status that goes beyond the stricly intergovernmental. As heir of the Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946), Unesco does maintain a vocation to remain an open forum of free minds, and to promote the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind. For that purpose, Unesco has established many cooperation links with international NGOs including those representative of the world scientific community (such as ICSU, the International council for science, itself a confederation of representative organizations) and it has served as a workhouse for the advancement of international law, through production of a wide variety of normative instruments: recommendations, declarations, conventions.



V.  The only safety possible lies in an intelligent exercise of day-to-day judgment


In 1955, not long before his death, the famous Hungarian-American scientist, John von Neumann (mathematician, physicist, economist, pioneer of scientific computers) published in Fortune Magazine an article strikingly entitled: Can we survive technology ? Here is some of his message:


For progress there is no cure.

Any attempt to find automatically safe channels for the present explosive variety of progress must lead to frustration. The only safety possible is relative, and it lies in an intelligent exercise of day-to-day judgment.

Useful and harmful techniques lie everywhere so close that it is never possible to separate the lions from the lambs.


These sentences contribute to explicit the notions of discernment, and continuing responsibility. Actually, not only are the 'lions' hardly distinguishable from the 'lambs', ab initio, but moreover, in the course of time, lions may turn into lambs and lambs into lions. Thus the need for a continuing day-to-day vigilance which requests a mix of responsibilities, adequately shared between individuals and institutions.



VI.  From Andreï Sakharov to David Kelly


The unprecedented trajectory of Sakharov's life led him from arms-making (forging nuclear bombs, the most terrible weapons of mass destruction) to social advocacy (including hunger strikes, internal exile) in favour of democracy and human rights.

Second paradox: Sakharov, who never left his motherland (except at the very end of his life, when he was allowed to travel abroad, under Gorbatchev), became one of the most universally respected moral figure. In a highly significant and innovative move, the European Parliament launched in 1988 the annual Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, a distinction which seeks in the spirit of Andreï Sakharov ... to honour individuals or organisations who have devoted themselves to the defence of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the struggle against oppression and injustice.

Just before the opening of the official celebrations for the 300th anniversary of the city of Saint Petersburg (May 2003), was unveiled a statue of Sakharov on a square situated between the main building of the State University and the library of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This square had already been named after "Academician Sakharov" a few years earlier (1996). Due to the sculptor Levon Lazarev, the monument succeeds in conveying an expression of indomitable intellectual resistance. While the hands are held behind the back, in a gesture of powerlessness, the head stands high and defiant as if meaning: "I chose truth, not force". This deprived and ascetic silhouette forms a symbolic contrast with the glorious equestrian statue of Peter the Great (inaugurated in 1782) which exalts the impetuous drive of strength and power, on the other side of the Neva.

In a statement, written during his seven-year relegation in Gorky, which managed to get published in Physics Today (June 1981) under the title The social responsibility of scientists, Sakharov said:

Every true scientist should undoubtedly muster sufficient courage and integrity to resist the temptation and the habit of conformity.

Unfortunately, we are familiar with too many examples in the Soviet Union ...

and he went on:

Western scientists face no threat of prison or labor camp for public stands; they cannot be bribed by an offer of foreign travel to forsake such activity.

But this in no way diminishes their responsibility.

Some Western intellectuals warn against social involvement as a form of politics. But I am not speaking about a struggle for power. This is not politics. It is a struggle to preserve peace and those ethical values which have been developed as our civilization evolved.

By their example and by their fate, prisoners of conscience affirm that the defense of justice, the international defense of individual victims of violence, the defense of mankind's lasting interests are the responsibility of every scientist.


Andreï Sakharov's life (1921-1989) illustrates the tensions of a bipolar world (the Cold War era). One generation later, the destiny of David Kelly (1944-2003) illustrates the tensions of our contemporary unipolar world.


A renowned microbiologist, turned weapons inspector (with many missions accomplished in Russia, then in Iraq), David Christopher Kelly committed suicide on 17 July 2003. He was then senior adviser to the Directorate of counter proliferation and arms control of the UK Ministry of defence and to the counter proliferation Department of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

The tragic death of this internationally respected expert created a moral shock in his country, and abroad. Entrusted to Lord Hutton by Tony Blair, the long judicial enquiry allowed to reveal and publicize many episodes and circumstances of the drama but the final report revived the controversy, so biased appeared its conclusions in favour of the power and against the press.

What was at stake in this affair ? Concerning the alleged possession of WMD (weapons of mass destruction) by Iraq, and its potential threat for the outside world, it turned out that the claims made by the US-UK-led coalition were considerably exaggerated in comparison with the reality (as later found on the ground). The alternative is then: did the UK government commit an assessment error in good faith ? or did it knowingly attempt to mislead its public opinion and the international community, in order to legitimate an invasion war, disguised into pre-emptive action ?



VII.  Good faith in science


Within science, there is a "right to error in good faith". During the investigations of scientific research, while we make experiments or invent theories, mistakes can occur and unforeseen effects eventually happen (sometimes for the better, and that is then praised as serendipity). More generally, it is commonly agreed that one gets experienced via processes of trial and error.

For scientists, the right to error in good faith does not mean a free license (under the blessing of a glorious uncertainty of the scientific method). It implies scruples in preparing, monitoring, checking, reporting, correcting, alerting. The word "scruple" comes from the Latin scrupulus, meaning a small grain of sand in the shoe which keeps recalling its presence.

In summary, there is no good faith without scruples. And without a readiness to pay a price in the service of truth.


Andreï Sakharov (two decades of harassment from a totalitarian regime), David Kelly (supreme sacrifice of his life), and Mordechai Vanunu (18 years of imprisonment, including 11 years in solitary confinement) paid heavy prices for telling the truth. Although the three cases obviously differ in many aspects, there is one remarkable similarity which deserves notice: systematic persecutions from the ruling powers started after talks of the scientists with journalists.


Scientific institutions should provide protection for the courageous individuals who profer disturbing truths, so that the penalty does not become unbearably heavy. This is a most important lesson to be drawn from history, and an instructive one about the proper articulation of individual and collective responsibilities.


Nowadays, there seems to be an increasing tendency among politicians to claim acting in good faith, without care for the burden of scruples. But good faith without scruples is just another name for impunity culture, i.e. it is not trustworthy.

Truth and force do not always get along in harmony, and at times, one must choose.


                                                                                                                                                                           May 2004


Background documents:

- Russell-Einstein Manifesto (1955)  http:// 

- Eisenhower's US-presidential swansong (1961)   

- Sakharov's Thoughts on Progress, Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom (1968) and Nobel Lecture (1975)



- Scientific cooperation, state conflict. The roles of scientists in mitigating international discord, Eds. Allison de Cerreno and Alex Keynan, Annals of the New York Academy of sciences, Vol 866 (1998)

- Scientists, war and diplomacy: a European perspective, published in 'Technology in Society' (Pergamon), Vol 23, No 3, Aug 2001; available also in French at:

- G.T., Regards sur l'éthique des sciences (Hachette-Littératures, 1998); Ethics enters the 21st century, Physics World, Nov 1999, pp. 13-14; The Century of Evaluation, Europhysics News, Nov/Dec 1999, pp.127-129; A question of ethics, Euroscience News, Summer 2002, p. 12

- Les scientifiques et les droits de l'Homme, L. Koch-Miramond + G.T. (Eds. Maison des sciences de l'homme, 2003)

- Charles Rhéaume, Sakharov. Science, morale et politique (Presses de l'Université Laval, Canada, 2004)


Energy, Economy and Technology: Key Issues 2000-2004

Vaseghi Sam

Euroscience Technology Transfer Group & Deloitte Management Consulting



Based on an international global Deloitte survey, our Analysis shows the years ahead contain more energy uncertainties than we have been still taking into account. Between now and 2010, we could face the following developments:

The world’s production of conventional oil and gas begins declining, revealing that reserves are less plentiful than previously thought. Alternatively, new discoveries add to proven reserves and send prices plummeting.

Oil and gas flows suffer chronic interruptions from OPEC holdbacks, turmoil in producing countries, sabotage, and fierce weather. Alternatively, OPEC’s cohesion disappears and cartel members flood the market with oil.

Alarm over global warming leads to taxes and restrictions on the use of fossil fuels in power generation. Alternatively, scientific proof emerges that warming is attributable to natural forces and the case for carbon restrictions vanishes.

The extent to which fuels are available and environmentally acceptable affects the strategic options of main energy stakeholders. At the extremes, chronic supply problems and serious climate concerns could promote government intervention and substitute sources, while prolonged periods of low prices could stunt growth and depress share values. Knowledgeable people inside and outside the energy business assume that over the next 10 years fossil fuel supply and demand will balance and that environmental issues will be manageable.

Uncertainty clouds the outlook for the global economy and technology. Equally well-qualified and experienced experts hold conflicting views as to what lies ahead in the new decade:

Expectations regarding the economy and capital markets can be separated into those that are mainly optimistic (the economy soars) and those that are mainly pessimistic (the economy sags).

Likewise, expectations regarding technology can be grouped into those that are mainly optimistic (technology leaps) and those that are mainly pessimistic (technology lags).

This division is a problem for defining sustainable strategies. Energy is a big-bet business, and much rides on factors such as GDP trends, the cost of capital, and the pace at which new generations of technology emerge:

If the economy grows, capital flows, and technology flourishes, businesses will face the challenges of a buoyant, robust marketplace in which change is the norm. The advantage will go to companies that are agile, aggressive, and techno-savvy.

But if this turns out to be a down decade, utilities will be constrained by low demand, capital shortages, and technology drift. Industry leaders will be those best at running lean, making do, and preparing for better days.

With the outlook this blurry, we believe it is unwise to rely on forecasts, probabilities, trend-lines, and other tools that presume foresee ability. Rather than trying to predict the future, the better course is to factor into strategies an array of differing points of view as to what the coming years will bring.

One can use scenario-based planning to define the range of most-likely threats and opportunities, and then equip to deal with any of several futures by building a portfolio of real options:

For example, one may create real options by breaking a capital project into segments to create more go/no-go decision points, or by taking a stake in a company working on a new technology that would be valuable under certain circumstances.

Such initiatives might not survive standard discounted cash flow (DCF) analyses, but they can turn out to be justifiable when a one recognizes the value inherent in being able to postpone certain decisions until better information is available.

Thus we believe the high degree of flux invalidates the usual approach of basing strategy on linear projections of future conditions. What is needed is strategic flexibility and ongoing conflict management. The more detailed summaries to follow further substantiate our recommendation that strategic planning should include careful provision for multiple possible futures.


Social Sciences in Ukrainian Society: From Communist Ideology to New Political Conformism

Yegorov Igor

Centre for S&T Potential and Science History Studies,  National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

It is well-known that social sciences in national republics of the Soviet Union were under ‘double pressure’ – from the side of local authorities and from the side of Moscow ideologists, who tried to rid out all signs of so-called ‘bourgeoisie nationalism’.

This resulted in practice, when usually directors of almost all research institutes could be nominated only after their work in the science or ideological departments of the republican Communist Party. All promotions to the members of the Academy of Sciences in social sciences were under strict control from the side of Communist ideologists. Best specialists (such, for instance, as famous economists Nikolai Fedorenko and Sergei Glaziev) have preferred to work in Moscow, not in Ukraine. This has formed a situation, when highest elite of Ukrainian social sciences was composed mainly from apparatchiks, not the best scholars.

As some researchers pointed out important changes occurred in the Soviet scientific community during last decades of the Soviet Union. Such qualities as commitment to Communist ideology, obedience and skill in 'bubbling presentation' of results became very important, and sometimes dominant, factors in promotion to the officially recognised scientific elite of the USSR.

Just after the gaining the independence, many scholars have changed their political positions, and have started to serve the new regime. The problem was that the new Ukrainian authorities had no ideology, but, as Yeltsin in Russia, were mainly interested in keeping their power and justifying their actions.

Proclamation of independence encouraged some hopes that the Ukrainian science sector would break its dependence from Moscow and start to forge its own development path. In reality, the opposite happened. In the case of social sciences, new authorities could find firm support from the former ‘servants of ideological front’.    

The ideological function of science has been weakened, but it remains important. In a rapidly changing socio-political environment the role of really well-grounded research is growing. In early 1990s a number of very important think-tanks were created, such as the Institute for Strategic Studies, the Centre for Economic Reforms Studies, the Institute for Conversion Studies and so on. Some of them are undertaking projects for different state ministries and agencies, others are operating as independent or semi-independent organizations, but usually with strong financial support from various entrepreneurial organisations, powerful financial and economic groups or foreign foundations. They have become an essential supplement to the system of state management, which sometimes helps to make important corrections to the decision -making process at the highest level.

But at the same time, almost all the human sciences institutes, which were responsible for the development of 'Marxist- Leninist' theory and supplied Communist leaders with 'scientific arguments' for their state activity, have been preserved. It is evident that most of them will need a lot of basic transformation to meet the needs of today's Ukraine. Surprisingly, the most ideologically -oriented institutes have demonstrated the best adaptive qualities, because they needed to act more decisively to persuade people to forget their notorious practice in the past. Thus the Higher Communist Party School, which was created specially to train the Soviet Ukrainian nomenklatura, has been renamed the National Academy of Management and become a pioneer in the introduction of the paid system of education among the Universities and other institutions of higher learning.

A similar situation exists on the 'micro' level, with departments of Communist Party History and of Marxist-Leninist Political Economy being renamed Political History and Economics and Management Departments respectively.

On the other hand, representatives of nationalistic forces have shared the power with old scientific ‘nomenklatura’. Not surprisingly that both groups have focused their activities to justify newly-emerged regime. This was especially important in conditions of shrinking financial support for research in Ukraine. So, in early 1990s both ‘schools’ have started to argue that Ukraine had the best positions among all post-Soviet states for economic development, bearing in mind the volume of per head production of steel, wheat and some other products. The second argument was that Ukraine has scored the highest points from the group of German experts from Deutsche bank among the all post-Soviet states. If fact, this conclusion was based on poor-grounded estimates made by politically-oriented Ukrainian scholars.

Complete lack of political culture and the habit to meet all propositions of political sponsors have led to numerous quasi-scientific mystifications and even to the sharpening of latent conflicts in Ukrainian society. Recent events are related to evaluation of ‘golodomor’ of early 1930s and Pereyaslavskaya Rada of 1654, when scholars tried to ‘satisfy’ both outgoing presidential and the opposition forces at the same time. Emotional estimates, not research results dominated in discussions in scientific literature.

Dependence from the state authorities and intention to preserve their positions force social scientists to violate moral principles in selection of members of scientific elite. Almost 80% members of the Ukrainian Parliament received scientific degrees in social sciences, most of them after elections. Skepticism is widespread among ‘ordinary’ scientists, when they see, how high-ranking politicians receive places in the National Academy of Sciences without any real scientific achievement. ‘Selling’ of scientific degrees and professorships in exchange of political dividends and extra money from the state budget has become a usual practice in the country.

In recent years non-governmental research organizations have emerged in Ukraine. They have alternative positions in many questions. But the problem lies in fact that the sphere of their interests is rather limited. They comprise some problems of current political life, sociology, and economics (to some extent). Other disciplines, such as history, legal sciences, ethics and so on are out of their interests. It is also worth to mention that foreign funds usually provide money for politically sound projects or to specific programs (For instance, at the moment, the biggest Vidrodzhennya Foundation supports women studies, Roma and Tartar studies, journalism and nothing else). Along with shrinking support from the EU and the USA, this creates situation of highly politicized social sciences, without really balanced and long-term researches.

Ukrainian society is losing trust in objectivity of the research results, and it could not find answers (or advices) to the key questions of its development. Such situation does not contribute to the solving of internal conflicts of the country. Foreign –sponsored centres express their views, but they have mainly reputation of executors of ‘foreign orders’, while scholars from ‘traditional’ institutions are usually backing position of the state authorities.

It is evident that the situation has to be changed.

First of all, competitive principles of funds distribution have to be implemented. Now, this procedure is very limited and it is under control of the directors of the research institutes and University rectors. Foreign specialists have to be participants of the grant committees.

The second step could be connected with development of special partnership programs between Ukrainian and Western scholars, as it was with numerous programs between CEE and EU countries in 1990s.

The third, Western scholars have to stop support of researchers on the purely political basis. There a number of cases when directors of institutes with poor scientific reputation have been invited to international scientific forums or even elected to the scientific academies. Diasporas in the EU countries and especially in the USA have to have less influence on selection of research projects and programs of support. (For instance, as a result of pressure from Diaspora, the American state agencies discriminatively support book publications in social science in Ukrainian language only, despite Russian language is also a common language of scientific communication in the country, especially in Eastern and Southern regions).

But, of course, the key for healthy development of social sciences and their growing contribution to the resolution of social problems will be the understanding of the need for more independence from the state authorities. Unfortunately, in Ukraine, it seems that both existing authority and the opposition both consider social scientists as their servants, not partners. 


The Undeniable Connection between Science and War

Ziman John

Bristol University, UK


Like all good people, scientists do everything they can to mitigate tensions and conflicts in society. Sometimes they have unusual opportunities or special skills for doing this. This Workshop will help us all to recognize these opportunities and develop these skills.

But there is a serious gap in the programme. Our peace-making activities are frustrated by the close connections of science with war. Scientists are engaged everywhere in the invention, development, design and production of military hardware. It is no secret that this frequently includes weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear warheads, as well as more conventional (but not less terrifying!) instruments of death and devastation. How can this truth be ignored?

This is a topic on which views range widely. Some hold such inhumane employment to be totally unacceptable. Many agree with the Nobel Prize winner Joseph Rotblat that it is incompatible with the peace-loving principles of scientific endeavour. Many others hold that it is only justifiable in particular circumstances, such as a direct threat to the security of ones fellow citizens. A wider group find it acceptable to work for the armed forces of their own countries but would refuse to serve the international armaments trade. And we are all deeply ashamed that some of our scientific colleagues are actively adding extra dimensions of horror to the most terrible events of our era.

The ethical arguments for and against each of these positions are well known and not at all complicated. Every conscientious scientist must surely have considered them, debated them with their friends and come to their own private conclusions about them. But they are also discussed by thoughtful non-scientists. These often include the very people whose tensions we would like to mitigate. In a serious conflict situation, the possibility of using sophisticated weapons is never far away. So all our efforts to reduce such tensions will be treated with suspicion unless it is known publicly where we stand professionally in such matters.

Globally, the armaments industry is almost entirely in the hands of very large enterprises. Any scientist thus employed is contractually bound to serve the interests of a particular national government or industrial corporation. He or she comes to every scene of social conflict with that label. This may not be relevant to the point of dispute. Nevertheless, it needs to be clearly stated, for it affects the standing of other scientists working for a peaceful settlement. Is their intervention genuinely unbiased, or are they just the agents of some other interested party?

So the scientific community must be ready to discuss these matters openly. It must not seem to be ‘in denial’ of the ethical questions they raise. Unlike scientific problems, these do not have universally valid ‘solutions’. But only by debating them amongst ourselves can we arrive at convincing personal and communal responses to their challenge.

This is all that I wanted to say at this Workshop. I do not claim to have more extensive factual knowledge, deeper ethical insights, or higher moral standards, than any of the rest of you. I have covered only a few of the many concerns that this subject arouses in the public mind. So I offer it to you, as socially responsible individuals and as a conscientious working group, as a topic on which you surely ought to develop together your own ideas, opinions and conclusions. But please let me know, at the end, what is said, for this is a debate that must run and run, throughout our community. 


Conflicts among New Drugs and huMan Health

Zlatarska I.

Association of Bulgarian Ecologists, Bulgaria

Lots of the up-to-date drugs cause damages to the cells of organism disturbing their normal formation and disturb the functions of many unknown glands. They have negative effects disturbing the functions of the gastro system, causing the development of ulcerative and tumor formations which later influences the blood content as well as the lymph content and liquor.

Very often drugs taken in order to put in order the blood pressure cause the appearance of ulcer of the pylorus, colon or sigmoid colon. The big variety of hormones taken by women during climax cause the formation of myomas, cysts of the ovaries, inflammations of the vagina and the appearance of fungi and bacteria. The lack of enough complete research of human organism (because it is quite expensive now) and the undetermined diagnosis sometimes are the reasons for the incorrect and incomplete establishment of the disease and thus for mistakes of the treatment.

The so called "unknown reasons" for these anomalies are not really unknown. It is talked for years about the damages caused by antibiotics but there are still careless colleagues who think they help recommending antibiotics in the struggle against viruses.

That’s why the toxicologists and my modest person as their representative are giving instructions to the manufacturers - not to produce an endless amount of pills, but only in accordance with the described disease reasons. The herbal mixtures should be presented in its natural way without emulators and synthetics. It is high time to stop the useless experiments to the account of the suffering humanity.

The health culture of people is very insufficient and this is obvious to each sensible scientist responsible for human population to be healthy, able to create and produce goods, and care for the preservation of Mother Nature.

The fight has just started against the drugs which have spread all over the world. They exist in all the neurological medicinal products damaging the mental capacities and the central nervous system and they also cause mental derangement. The new drugs damage the internal organs and this can be easily seen without even explaining it. That's why people should have in mind their after-effects in the process of their production. The side effects of lots of drugs are pointed but for many others are given only the positive effects and nothing about the negative ones which influence the organism. It’s not right to sell carelessly and agitating extracts without having in mind the exact state of the organism or just observing the symptoms. The individuality is of great importance and the diagnosis is the most necessary thing to reach certain success.

It is very important for the lecturers to pay special attention in the process of teaching students in medicine and biology the study of new methods of treatment with natural products and stress upon the exact diagnosis.


Appendix 2           

Biographies of Speakers


Alexander Makarenko

Born 31\10\1951 in Kiev (UKRAINE), Graduated from Moscow Institute of Physics, and Technology in 1974 Received Ph.D. on Theoretical Physics in 1985 (Odessa State University, Ukraine), Received Doctor Degree of Science on Mathematical Modeling in 1996 (Institute of Cybernetics, National Academy of Science, Ukraine)

AFFILIATION: National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI), Institute of Applied System Analysis PROFESSOR: Department of Mathematical Methods of System Analysis

CONSULTANT: 'Intellectual Systems Ltd', (Ukraine) on Geo - Informational Systems

and Ecological Data Bases SPECIALIST: Mathematic, Ecology,

Physics, Social Sciences, Geopolitics

Doctor of Science, Professor


1. Investigation on heat and mass transfer in fast processes with memory and nonlocality effects. Searching blow- up solution, low- dimensional and infinite dimensional chaos. Investigations of hyperbolic heat conduction equation.

2. Development of numerical methods for differential equation of mathematical physics. Construction of new schemes for discontinuous and blow - up solutions.

3. Mathematical modeling of global processes in large socio- economical systems. It was proposed entirely new models based on associative memory property. The models are applied to sustainable development, stock market, conflict processes, and epidemiology.

4. Modeling and prognoses of geopolitical relations. It was developed new models on the basis of associative memory approach, computer models and made some geopolitical prognoses for Europe.

5. Implementation of geoinformation systems for different goals. GIS

 - based models for radionuclide spreading after Chernobyl, floods modeling, ecological problems, demographical, economical and election prediction.

6. Investigation on complexity measure and information content in nonprobabilistic object. It was proposed entirely new measure of complexity based on symmetry properties of object. The applications to pattern recognition, genetic code and computer program analysis are anticipated.

The member of Conflictological Society of Ukraine


Izold Pustylnik

 (born March 17th 1938 in Odessa, Ukraine) graduated from Odessa State University in 1960 (diploma cum laude ) as a physicist. Degree of the candidate of sciences in astronomy (Ph.D.) defended at Tartu University in 1969. Dissertation "On the Nature of the Reflection Effect and Interpretation of Atmospheric Eclipses in Close Binary Stars". Degree of the doctor of sciences in astronomy (D.Sc.) defended in 1994 at St. Petersburg University (Russia). Dissertation "Investigation of the Effects of Gravitational and Radiative Interactions in Close Binary Systems with Non-Relativistic Components." Since 2000 I.Pustylnik is employed at Tartu Observatory as a Senior research associate (previous names: up to 1973 Institute of Physics and Astronomy, up to 1985 Institute of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics).

Research interests include physics of close binary systems, theory of stellar atmospheres, interstellar medium, history of astronomy, archaeoastronomy. I.Pustylnik is the author of about 100 scientific articles and two monographies.

Currently I.Pustylnik is a member of  International Astronomical Union (Commissions 41,42), European Astronomical Society, Society for European Astronomy in Culture (SEAC), Euroscience, Board of Euro-Asian Astronomical Society, Advisory Board of the journal "Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions", Co-editor of "Central European Journal of Physics".

In 1998 I.Pustylnik worked for one month as a visiting fellow of the Corpus Christie College (Cambridge). In 1999 I.Pustylnik worked for two months in Athens University (Greece) in the framework of the NATO Science Fellowship. In 2000 I.Pustylnik worked for three months in Ondrejov observatory (Czech Republic) in the framework of NATO Program Science Fellowships. I.Pustylnik is fluent in Estonian, English and Polish languages (Russian is the mother tongue), German, French (working knowledge), Hungarian,Czech,Hebrew (elementary knowledge).


Rezvan Efim


Dr. Efim A. Rezvan (born in 1957), Editor-en-Chief of “Manuscripta Orientalia”, International Journal for Oriental Manuscript Research, and Deputy Director of Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography Russian Academy of Sciences is the author of dozens research works published in Russian, English, Arabic, French, German, Italian, Persian, Finnish, Uzbek and Japanese.

His main field of interest is Qur’anic studies. Besides many journal and encyclopaedic articles and book sections he prepared (together with A.N. Weiraukh) the publication of the Russian Qur’an translation by D.N. Boguslavsky (St. Petersburg, 1995); monographs “The Qur’an and its Exegesis” (St. Petersburg, 2000, in Russian); “The Holy Qur’an in Russia” (Dubai 2002, in Arabic); “The Qur’an of ‘Uthman (Katta Langar, St. Petersburg, Bukhara, Tashkent) (St. Petersburg, Dubai, 2002) (Russian, English and Arabic editions). He is a participant of the “Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an” international project.

Dr. Rezvan’s second field of interest is connected with the history of the Russian – Arabic relations. Here he also published series of monographs: “Russian Ships in the Gulf. 1899‑1903. Material from the State Central Navy Archives” (Moscow, 1990, in Arabic and London, 1994, in English); “Hadjdj Century Ago: Secret Mission of Russian Officer ‘Abd al-Aziz Davletshin to Macca, 1898” (Beirut, 1994, in Arabic). His next book “Arabic Horse in Russia” will be published in Dubai soon.

Dr. Rezvan is one of the organisers of the exhibition “Pages of Perfection. Islamic Paintings and Calligraphy from the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, (Paris – New York – Lugano – Salzburg) and the co-author of its fundamental catalogue (Milano, 1995, French, English, German and Italian Editions).

Being interested in the new informational technologies Dr. Rezvan initiated and actively participated in the creation of specialised software, including the Arabic OCR system now most popular in the Arab world.

Dr. Rezvan is the author and co-ordinator of the project “Asiatic Museum. Treasures from St. Petersburg Academic Collection of Oriental Manuscripts” (CD‑ROM Series); chief editor of the “Monumenta Orientalia” and “Culture and Ideology of the Muslim East” book series, member of the editorial boards of several other series of scholarly publications.

Among his scholarly awards one can mention that of the Committee of the Muslims of Asia (Tashkent, 1998) (as one the authors of the “Encyclopaedia of Islam in Russia”), Soka University Honorary Award (Tokyo, 1998), Golden Medal in commemoration of the Centennial of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, 1999).

His last book “The Qur’an and Its World” was published in Russian and English (journal variant) and in 2002 received the UNESCO award and the title of the best book published in Russia in 2001.





Raymond Seltz

was born in 1934 in France, and obtained his doctorate from the University of Strasbourg. A nuclear physicist, he became Directeur de Recherche CNRS in 1974. He has been director of  the Centre de Recherche Nucléaires Strasbourg from 1980 to 1989 and  project leader for the Vivitron accelerator. As a representative of CNRS in Bonn  and scientific attaché at the French Embassy, he covered Germany and the neighbouring Eastern countries until 2000.

In Euroscience, he is particularly concerned in the role of scientists in constructing the European Union and in the cultural and scientific integration of other European countries.


Eugeny Stepanov

Prof., Director of The Conflictology Centre,

The Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ulit. Krzhizhanovskogo, 24/35 corp. 5, office 413, 117218 Moscow, Russia, Tel.: 8 (095)125-6150, Fax: 8 (095) 719-09-90,

Date and place of birth:    August 23, 1942 ã., Russia, Graduated from Moscow State University

Career/Employment :(employers, positions and dates)

1972-1982 – Institute of Philosophy RAS,

1982-1991 – Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences,

1991-2003 – Director of the Conflictology Centre, the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

1992-2003 – Main Editor of series “Social conflicts: expertise, prediction, technologies of resolution”

1999-now – The President of International Association of conflictologists

1996 ã. – Dc Ph. 1998 - Professor

Specialization (specify):

(i)            main field               conflictology

(ii)           other fields            sociology, the theory of social control

(iii)          current research interest     conflitology of migration

Honours, Awards, Fellowships, Membership of Professional Societies

                Dc. PH., Professor, the President of International Association of conflictologists

Publications (list selected publications on page 2 of curriculum vitae): - Number of papers in refereed journals:          îêîëî 100

- Number of communications to scientific meetings: îêîëî 30, - Books: 4.

Recent selected publications (additional pages should NOT be attached and reprints should NOT be enclosed)

Conflictology of transitional period, Moscow, 1996.

Conflicts of modern Russia. Ìoscow, 2000


Piotr Swiatek

EU-Bureau of Federal Ministry of Education and Research

PT-DLR,  P.O. Box 30 03 64, D-53183 Bonn

Piotr Swiatek is a project coordinator in EU-Bureau of the Federal Ministry of Education and  Research in Bonn, Germany. He is former manager of Fit for Europ, action run by the EU-Liaison Office of the German Research Organisations is an expert in scientific co-operation with former East Block countries. Fit for Europe worked out concepts and implements measures which enhance participation of Central and East European Countries in EU Framework Programs. He holds a PhD in experimental physics and has a long research record in Research Centre Juelich (FZJ).

Born 28.11.1953 in Wroclaw/Poland

Project Manager of Fit for Europe  by KoWi since 2000

KoWi (Koordinierungsstelle EG der Wissenschaftsorganisationen) is the EU liaison office of the German R&D organisations, has ten affiliated members, premises in Bonn and Brussels.

Fit for Europe is a project supporting Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC), financed by the "Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft" and coordinated by KoWi. The aim of Fit for Europe is to transfer the practical experience of KoWi to the new partners in the CEEC, implement measures which will enhance their participation in EU Framework Programs and prepare them for the new challenge of European Research Area.

Appointed Lecturer at the University of Applied Sciences Cologne.

Deputy  chairman of Scientific Section of the German Photographic Society

Professional Life               

1986 – 2000 Research fellow at Research Centre Juelich, Germany. Institute for Solid State Research.

Education and Qualifications

1986  Doctor Thesis on “Lichtstreu- und  Mikrowellenuntersuchungen von Spinwellen an dünnen ferromagnetischen Schichten" (“Light scattering and Microwave Investigation of Spin-Waves in thin Ferromagnetic Films“)  from University of Cologne, Germany

1983 – 1986 Doktorand (Doctor Student) at Nuclear research Centre Juelich, Germany

1976 – 1981 Research Assistant, Institute of Physics, Technical University Wroclaw, Poland

1976  Diploma, Master of Science in Physics of Semiconductors

1974 – 1976 Studies at the Warsaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics

1972 – 1974 Studies at the Wroclaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics

1968 – 1972 Secondary school in Wroclaw, Abitur in Wroclaw 1972

1960 – 1968 Primary school in Wroclaw



Pal Tamas

Education: M.A., Kiev Institute of Technology, Kiev, USSR, Electric Engineering and Computer Science, 1971;,

Karl Marx University, Budapest, Macroeconomics and Economic Planning, 1977; Ph.D. Hungarian Academy Sciences,

Budapest, Sociology, 1981.

Professional Experience: 1972-74, Research Fellow, Bureau for Research, International Organization of Journalists, Budapest; 1974-78 , Scientific Secretary and Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; 1978-Senior Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; 1983, Visiting Fellow: British Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities, London, UK; 1985, American Studies Fellow, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA; 1989-1991, Director of Research - Hungarian Institute for Public Opinion Research, Budapest; 1991, Visiting Professor, Department of Political Science, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, USA; 1991-1992, Visiting Professor, Department of Political Science, Concordia University, Montreal, Qc, Canada; 1995-1996,Guest Scientist, WZB, Berlin; Director, Institute of Social Conflict Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; 1998-, Director, Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.

Awards and memberships: 1982, Erdei Ferenc Award of the Hungarian Sociological Association; 1985, American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship; 1988, National Award for Education of the Youth (Hungary); 1990, Award of the Hungarian Broadcasting Corporation (Rádió nivódíj); 1998-2002, Széchenyi Professorship; 1998, Hungarian Academy of Engineering, Member.

Professional Associations:

JEL-KÉP (Sign), Hungarian Communications' Quarterly - Editor -1988-91, Member of the Board - 1992-; International

Sociological Association, Research Committee on Sociology of Science - Board Member 1986-1994; International

Sociological Association, Working Group on Environment and Society - Board Member 1990-1994; International Council

for Science Policy Studies - Board Member, 1993-; Hungarian Sociological Association - Secretary of the Sociology of

Science Section 1986-; Culture and Society of East-Central Europe Program Dubrovnik Inter-University Centre for Post-graduate

Studies - Director of Courses 1988-1990; KUTATÁS-FEJLESZTÉS (R&D), Hungarian Bi-Monthly - Member of

the Editorial Board, 1989-1994; Vengerszkij meridian (Hungarian Social Science Magazine in Russian) - Member of the

Editorial Board, 1989-91; Társadalomkutatás (Social Research) - member of the Editorial Board, 1995-; Information

Zentrum für Sozialwissenschaften, Bonn - Member of the Beirat 1995-; Hungarian National Science Foundation, Social

Science Board 1995-; Stanford Institute for Advanced Studies, Member of the East European Advisory Boards 1995-; St.

Petersburg Summer School for Social Studies of Science, Russia, Board Member 1992-; Hungarian Sociological

Association, President, 1997-1999



Eduard Tropp

Prof., Dr. Sci (Physics), General academic secretary of St. Petersburg, Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences


1957-1963 Leningrad Polytechnic Institute (St. Petersburg State Technical) University, 1965-1968 A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute; Ph. D course, 1973 Ph.D  Thesis: Studies on the Laminar Induction Driven Flow of Conducting Fluid

1984        A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Dr. Sci (Physics) Thesis: Asymptotic Decomposition Of the Multi-Scaled Steady-State and Quasi-Stationary Problems of Continuous Medium Thermo mechanics and Electrodynamics

Languages:              English, some French

Status: St. Petersburg scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, General Academic Secretary, A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Math. Physics and Applied Math. Lab., Head of Laboratory, St. Petersburg State Technical University, Chair of  Mathematical Physics, Prof., Head of the Chair

Professional Interests: Mathematical Physics, Magneto hydrodynamics,     Kinetics, Elasticity Theory, Philosophy, Sociology and History of Science

Publications:              More 130 publications (books, articles, invention certificates).

Books         Asymptotic methods in the Thermo conductivity and Thermo elasticity Problems. – Leningrad, 1978 (tog. with I.E.Zino) (in Russian) A.A.Friedmann: The man who made the Universe Expand. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993, Russian ed. – 1988 (tog. with A.D. Chernin and V.Ya. Frenkel)  Book sections: Gorod nauki (The City of Sciences) in: Kniga o   Saint-Petersburge (The Book on St. Petersburg),   (in Russian) (tog. With Zh. I.Alferov), St. Petersburg, 1997.

Teaching experience: Leningrad Polytechnic Institute (St. Petersburg State Technical University), - Workshop on Math. Physics for 3-rd year students       1966-1984, - Lectures: Computational Mathematics                       1986-1987, - Lectures: Mathematical Physics, 1987-1999, Asymptotical Methods of Math. Phys.  1978-1984, St. Petersburg State University   - Lectures: Philosophy and Methodology of Science 1996, International School of Sociology of Science (St. Petersburg, Russia) - Lectures: Scientific Management 1992-1997   


Sam Vaseghi

Dr.-Ing. Dipl. mult.

2000, PhD in Process Engineering, University of Stuttgart

1999, MSc in technical Biologie & Life Sciences, University of Stuttgart,

1994, MSc in Mechanical and Process Engineering, University of Stuttgart

Work Experience 2002-present, Senior Consultant; Deloitte-Touche; Hamburg; Germany

2001-2002, Senior Consultant; EDS - Consulting Innovation and Technology AG; Hamburg

2000-2001, Senior Project Manager & Consultant; AOL Time Warner & CompuServe; Hamburg

1999-2000, Co-founder & Consultant; Braun Agrawal Information Technologies; Heidelberg

Since 1998, Chair; Euroscience; Paris, France

1994-1999, Senior Researcher Bioprocess Engineering; Center of Bioprocess Engineering; Stuttgart

1992-1994, Project Manager, Fraunhofer Society for Work-Economy and Organisation; Stuttgart




Nelli Didenko


Name:                 Nelli I. DIDENKO

Citizenship:        Russia

Tel. office:          7-812-328-40-87 

Fax:                     7-812-328-37-87 


Mailing address:  St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of RAS,  5, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg,  199034, Russia


1994  Ph.D degree on programming and estimate of durability of three dimensional solid bodies in application to details of turbines of complex shape 

1963-1969 Diploma with honors (equivalent to a M.A. degree) received at the State University of St. Petersburg,  Department of  Physics, on specialty radio-physicist                                                                                                                                         
Continuing Education:

2001  Training in Workshop in St.Petersburg (Participation in EC R&D Programmers), (certificate) 

1997  The Institute for International Trade, of Educational Services International, Inc.(ESI), USA (certificate)

1995 Training in Ultramax Corp. in USA, Cincinnati, Ohio, (certificate on ULTRAMAX Software and Formulation Course) 

1976-1980 Post-graduate. Study (part-time) at the Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology by Academy of Sciences of USSR, at Department of mathematical physics                                                                                                                     


2003-now senior researcher in St. Petersburg Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences

1998-2002  assistant of the regional representative of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of RAS 

1997 -1998 Senior manager of Techoptimum, Ltd; 

1995-1997 Manager of optimization of technological processes in Joint Stock Company "Orient-SP" 

1980-1995  Researcher of Polzunov Central Boiler Turbine Institute 

1974-1980  Assistant professor at Theoretical Mechanics Department in Institute of Textile and Light Industry 

1969-1974 Engineer of Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute                                                                        

Professional membership:

Member of the St. Petersburg Association of Scientists and Scholars (SPASS), (1996-now), member of SPASS Coordinating Board and SPASS Learned Secretary(two period)

Co chairperson of the St. Petersburg Women Association in Science (SPWAS)

Member of Euroscience . The Executive of St. Petersburg Branch of Euroscience Working Group for Technology Transfer in Europe (ESWGTT), Editor in Chief  of  "TTLinkage", the official electronic journal of ESWGTT , a member of editor's board of   "Technology Space Internet Journal" ,

ES Local Section in Russia, Chair (June 2003-now)

Participation in International conferences:

Three invited presentations in international conferences on International conference on Ecology of cities, 8-12 June 1998, Rhodes, Greece, on  Advanced Summer Institute 1999, ICIMS-NOE, Sept.22-24, Leaven, Belgium on Advanced Summer Institute 2000, ICIMS-NOE, Sept.18-20, Bordeaux, France; Participation: in the First General Assembly of Euroscience (9-10  October 1998, Strasbourg, France), in the Second General Assembly of Euroscience (5-9 July 2000, Freiburg, Germany); Participation as a member of Russian delegation at IUPAP International conference on Women in Physics (7-9 March, 2002, Paris, France); Participation in joint conference of European Association of Research Managers and Administrators (EARMA) and Euroscience, Budapest, 14-16 June, 2002; Participation in the workshop Science for Reduction of  Risk and Sustainable Development of Society, Budapest, 15-16 June, 2002; Participation in the International conference "New Science and  Technology Based Professions in Europe",  Bischenberg (Alsace, France), November 6 - 9, 2002 ; Participation in the 3rd General Assembly of Euroscience, Strasbourg, November 10, 2002; Participation in ES Workshop on European Research Area, Regional Cooperation in Southeast Europe, Pathways for Stabilizing the RTD Potential, Bucharest, September 2003

Countries visited:  USA, France, Greece, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Romania

Special skills achieved good results in communications with native English speakers, ability to work under pressure, team leader, ability to work in a team

Publications: 26 articles, 2 author certificates (for new technological ideas)                                                 

December 2003                                                                                                                                                          



John McDonalds

1925 N.Lynn Street

Suite 1200

Rosslyn, VA 22209

ph. (703) 528 -38 63


McDonald retired from the Foreign Service in 1987, after 40 years as a diplomat. In 1987-88, he became a Professor of Law at The George Washington University Law School in Washington, D.C. He was Senior Advisor to George Mason University's Center for Conflict Analysis and Resolution and taught and lectured at the Foreign Service Institute and the Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs. From December, 1988, to January, 1992, McDonald was President of the Iowa Peace Institute in Grinnell, Iowa and was a Professor of Political Science at Grinnell College.

In 1983, Ambassador McDonald joined the State Department's newly formed Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs as its Coordinator for Multilateral Affairs, and lectured and organized symposia on the art of negotiation, multilateral diplomacy and international organizations. He has written or edited eight books on negotiation and conflict resolution.

From 1978-83, he carried out a wide variety of assignments for the State Department in the area of multilateral diplomacy. He was President of the INTELSAT World Conference called to draft a treaty on privileges and immunities; leader of the U.S. Delegation to the UN World Conference on Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries, in Buenos Aires in 1978; Secretary General of the 27th Colombo Plan Ministerial Meeting; head of the U.S. Delegation which negotiated a UN Treaty Against the Taking of Hostages; U.S. Coordinator for the UN Decade on Drinking Water and Sanitation; head of the U.S. Delegation to UNIDO III in New Delhi in 1980; Chairman of the Federal Inter-Agency Committee for the UN's International Year of Disabled Persons, 1981; U.S. Coordinator and head of the U.S. Delegation for the UN's World Assembly on Aging, in Vienna, in 1982.

From 1974-78, he was Deputy Director General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland, a UN Agency, with responsibility for managing that agency's 3,200 person Secretariat, coming from 102 countries, with programs in 120 member nations, and an annual budget of $135 million.

Ambassador John W. McDonald is a lawyer, diplomat, former international civil servant, development expert and peacebuilder, concerned about world social, economic and ethnic problems. He spent twenty years of his career in Western Europe and the Middle East and worked for sixteen years on United Nations economic and social affairs. He is currently Chairman and co-founder of the Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, in Washington D.C., which focuses on national and inter-national ethnic conflicts. In February, 1992, he was named Distinguished Visiting Professor at George Mason University's Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, in Fairfax, Virginia.

From 1947-1974, Ambassador McDonald held various State Department assignments in Berlin, Frankfurt, Bonn, Paris, Washington D.C., Ankara, Tehran, Karachi, and Cairo.

Ambassador McDonald holds both a B.A. and a J.D. degree from the University of Illinois, and graduated from the National War College in 1967. He was appointed Ambassador twice by President Carter and twice by President Reagan to represent the United States at various UN World Conferences


Polly C. Davis


Education:       BS, Political Science, 1979

                                University of Oregon, Eugene, OR



Associate Director                                                                                                               December 1994 - Present

Conflict Resolution Research and Resource Institute (CRI) ¾ Tacoma, WA

Responsible for developing human rights conflict resolution projects with the Central American Council of Human Rights Ombudsman Offices as well as with the Helsinki Foundation Warsaw, Poland and with NGOs via the Russian-American Program in Conflictology (R-APC) headquartered in St. Petersburg, Russia.  Has conducted conflict resolution and mediation trainings for the Helsinki Foundation and the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights in San Jose, Costa Rica. Recently negotiated contractual protocols governing CRI involvement with Sudan University of Science & Technology, Memorial Human Rights Watch, Helsinki Foundation, and Arias Foundation for Peace & Human Progress.  Trainer and training curriculum developer for CRI and grant manager.  Certification examiner of mediators for R-APC’s Conflict Resolution Center.

Co-Facilitator for Large Group Negotiations/Mediations                             June 1995 - Present

National Center Associates ¾ Tacoma, WA and CRI ¾ Tacoma, WA

·         Group Health Hospital management and a coalition of 7 unions, June - October 1995

·         City of Seattle Labor-Management Leadership Committee, June 1996 - Sept. 1997

·         Shoreline School District, School Board, and WEA, April - June 1997

·         Dept. of Social & Health Services Stakeholders Group for Developmental Disabilities Sept. 1997- Present

·         Seattle Fire Department May - August 1998

·         Seattle Police Department August 1998 – February 1999

·         King County Metro - ATU Local 587 July 1998 – September 1999

·         Washington State Department of Ecology Long Term Oil Spill Risk Management Panel: September 1999 – July 2000

·         Trendwest Resorts – August 2002

The successful approach used for all of these negotiations and mediations was to have individual information gathering meetings with the parties to the dispute in advance of the group meetings.  To assist the parties in interest identification for effective proposal development which would be accepted by the other side.

Certified Mediator                                                                                                                1989 - Present

Snohomish and King County Dispute Resolution Centers (DRCs)

Responsibilities include:  assisting parties in finding their own mutually satisfactory resolution to their dispute by providing a process whereby there is a joint examination of issues, recognition of common objectives, and insights into opposing perspectives.  As a neutral facilitator:  helping to define and clarify central issues, identify unstated assumptions and reasonable alternatives, reality test conclusions or hypotheses, and write realistic agreements that can work.

Volunteer Activities

·         Northwest Institute for Restorative Justice:            Board member, former Board Chair

·         Mediation Consortium of Washington:                   Member

·         Northwest Institute for Restorative Justice,

Snohomish and King County DRCs:                        Certified mediator




William F. Lincoln, Dhl

Doctor of Humane Letters   (April 2003}


William F. Lincoln is the founder and President of The Lincoln Institute for Collaborative Planning and Cooperative Problem Solving, Inc. (TLI) [], as well as the Executive Director for the Conflict Resolution, Research and Resource Institute, Inc. (CRI) [] both headquartered in Tacoma, Washington.  His primary responsibilities include providing direct intervention services and developing new programs and applications for the prevention, management, and resolution of dysfunctional conflicts.  Lincoln is also the Co-Director of the Russian-American Program of Conflictology (R-APC) headquartered in St. Petersburg, Russia as well as the Sudan-American Program for Peace headquartered in Khartoum Sudan.

Until June 1981, Lincoln served on the faculty of Harvard University where he taught Collective Negotiations and Impasse Resolution at the Department of City and Regional Planning in the Graduate School of Design and at the Kennedy School of Government.  In the Forward of the popular publication, Getting to Yes (Roger Fisher & William Ury), Lincoln is cited for having significantly assisted in teaching the courses at Harvard Law School from which that book was written.  He has also taught courses at many other institutions, including Oregon’s Willamette School of Law, Antioch, Seattle University, the University of Vermont, George Mason University, the University of Maryland, Washington State University, and the Federal Executive Institute.

Lincoln was appointed by the US House of Representatives’ Speaker to be one of nine Federal Commissioners on the US Commission to Hear and Examine Proposals for the National Academy for Peace and Conflict Resolution (May 1979 - September 1981) which resulted in Congressional legislation which created the United States Institute of Peace located in Washington DC.

Lincoln’s professional experiences include direct intervention in adult correctional institutions, public school desegregation, corporate relations, Native American affairs, labor-management relations, and environmental issues.  For eight years he served as New England Regional Director of the Department of Community Dispute Services of the American Arbitration Association.  He is a former Senior Fellow at the University of Maryland’s Center for International Development and Conflict Management and a former adjunct faculty member at the United States Federal Executive Institute where he taught a week-long course in negotiation theory and technique.  Lincoln also has significant international involvement regarding systems change, most notably in England, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Hungary, Turkey, Poland, the former Soviet Union, Latvia, and Russia where in conjunction with R-APC he assisted in the development of undergraduate and graduate degree granting programs in conflictology at the St. Petersburg State University.  Lincoln and staff are currently performing similar services at the Sudan University of Science and Technology [SUST]. 

In Nicaragua Lincoln conducted preparatory training and process coaching for the Sandanista and UNO leadership in preparation of transitional government negotiations, and similar services in Guatemala with all party negotiators and support staff in preparation of the formal peace process negotiations.  In Sudan, Lincoln is working closely with SUST, the Council of Churches [14 denominations] and the National Center for Diplomatic Studies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Soon he and staff are scheduled to initiate formal dialogue between Christians and the Khartoum based Islamic government.

Some of his most recent dispute intervention experiences in the Puget Sound area include mediation/facilitation of Joint Labor Management Committees for Group Health Cooperative (GHC) as well as with the “bargaining coalition” (nine unions, 14 units) regarding GHC’sï alliance development with Virginia Mason Hospital; mediation/facilitation with the City of Seattle and a coalition of 40 unions in the formation of the Labor Management Leadership Committee; mediation of the 19 member “Stakeholders Group” regarding the State of Washington’s Department of Social and Health Services Division of Developmental Disabilities; and multiparty mediation within the Seattle Fire Department regarding volatile tensions between race, ethnic, religious, gender, and sexual preference interest groups; and development-ecological conflict.


Boris A. Podoprigora,


Club of Conflictologists (mediators), St. Petersburg, Russia, President (2001-2004),

Vice- commander of the Department of International relations of the Leningrad  military region, colonel




* The work was conducted with the support of RFFI, project 00-06-80072


[1] 37 Pobedy Avenue, 03056, Kiev 56, Ukraine, E-mails: ;


[2] The work was conducted with the support of the Russian Fund of Fundamental Researc

[3] The following works were used as reference sources: B. Babadzhanov, M. Kampilov. “Muhammadzhan Khindustani i nachalo ‘velikogo raskola’ sredi musul’man Uzbekistana” [Muhammadjan Hindustani and the beginning of the ‘great schism’ among Uzbek Muslims] (in print); “Hindustani,” Islam na territorii byvshei Rossiiskoi imperii [Islam in the former Russian Empire], ed. by S. M. Prozorov, 3 (Moscow, 2001), pp. 116-117.

[4] The empirical evidence is based on participant observation around social democratic politics in Hungary, environmental policy advice in Hungary and NATO, in innovation policy strategies of Visegrad countries and OECD.